Radar

A long-range radar antenna, known as ALTAIR, used to detect and track space objects in conjunction with ABM testing at the Ronald Reagan Test Site on Kwajalein Atoll.
Long-range radar antenna, used to track space objects and ballistic missiles.
Israeli military radar is typical of the type of radar used for air traffic control. The antenna rotates at a steady rate, sweeping the local airspace with a narrow vertical fan-shaped beam, to detect aircraft at all altitudes.
Radar of the type used for detection of aircraft. It rotates steadily, sweeping the airspace with a narrow beam.

Radar is a detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects. It can be used to detect aircraft, ships, spacecraft, guided missiles, motor vehicles, weather formations, and terrain. A radar system consists of a transmitter producing electromagnetic waves in the radio or microwaves domain, a transmitting antenna, a receiving antenna (often the same antenna is used for transmitting and receiving) and a receiver and processor to determine properties of the object(s). Radio waves (pulsed or continuous) from the transmitter reflect off the object and return to the receiver, giving information about the object's location and speed.

Radar was developed secretly for military use by several nations in the period before and during World War II. A key development was the cavity magnetron in the UK, which allowed the creation of relatively small systems with sub-meter resolution. The term RADAR was coined in 1940 by the United States Navy as an acronym for RAdio Detection And Ranging[1][2] or RAdio Direction And Ranging.[3][4] The term radar has since entered English and other languages as a common noun, losing all capitalization.

The modern uses of radar are highly diverse, including air and terrestrial traffic control, radar astronomy, air-defence systems, antimissile systems, marine radars to locate landmarks and other ships, aircraft anticollision systems, ocean surveillance systems, outer space surveillance and rendezvous systems, meteorological precipitation monitoring, altimetry and flight control systems, guided missile target locating systems, ground-penetrating radar for geological observations, and range-controlled radar for public health surveillance.[5] High tech radar systems are associated with digital signal processing, machine learning and are capable of extracting useful information from very high noise levels.

Other systems similar to radar make use of other parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. One example is "lidar", which uses predominantly infrared light from lasers rather than radio waves.

History

First experiments

As early as 1886, German physicist Heinrich Hertz showed that radio waves could be reflected from solid objects. In 1895, Alexander Popov, a physics instructor at the Imperial Russian Navy school in Kronstadt, developed an apparatus using a coherer tube for detecting distant lightning strikes. The next year, he added a spark-gap transmitter. In 1897, while testing this equipment for communicating between two ships in the Baltic Sea, he took note of an interference beat caused by the passage of a third vessel. In his report, Popov wrote that this phenomenon might be used for detecting objects, but he did nothing more with this observation.[6]

The German inventor Christian Hülsmeyer was the first to use radio waves to detect "the presence of distant metallic objects". In 1904, he demonstrated the feasibility of detecting a ship in dense fog, but not its distance from the transmitter.[7] He obtained a patent[8] for his detection device in April 1904 and later a patent[9] for a related amendment for estimating the distance to the ship. He also got a British patent on September 23, 1904[10] for a full radar system, that he called a telemobiloscope. It operated on a 50 cm wavelength and the pulsed radar signal was created via a spark-gap. His system already used the classic antenna setup of horn antenna with parabolic reflector and was presented to German military officials in practical tests in Cologne and Rotterdam harbour but was rejected.[11]

In 1915, Robert Watson-Watt used radio technology to provide advance warning to airmen[12] and during the 1920s went on to lead the U.K. research establishment to make many advances using radio techniques, including the probing of the ionosphere and the detection of lightning at long distances. Through his lightning experiments, Watson-Watt became an expert on the use of radio direction finding before turning his inquiry to shortwave transmission. Requiring a suitable receiver for such studies, he told the "new boy" Arnold Frederic Wilkins to conduct an extensive review of available shortwave units. Wilkins would select a General Post Office model after noting its manual's description of a "fading" effect (the common term for interference at the time) when aircraft flew overhead.

Across the Atlantic in 1922, after placing a transmitter and receiver on opposite sides of the Potomac River, U.S. Navy researchers A. Hoyt Taylor and Leo C. Young discovered that ships passing through the beam path caused the received signal to fade in and out. Taylor submitted a report, suggesting that this phenomenon might be used to detect the presence of ships in low visibility, but the Navy did not immediately continue the work. Eight years later, Lawrence A. Hyland at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) observed similar fading effects from passing aircraft; this revelation led to a patent application[13] as well as a proposal for further intensive research on radio-echo signals from moving targets to take place at NRL, where Taylor and Young were based at the time.[14]

Just before World War II

Experimental radar antenna, US Naval Research Laboratory, Anacostia, D. C., late 1930s

Before the Second World War, researchers in the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, the Soviet Union, and the United States, independently and in great secrecy, developed technologies that led to the modern version of radar. Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa followed prewar Great Britain's radar development, and Hungary generated its radar technology during the war.[15]

In France in 1934, following systematic studies on the split-anode magnetron, the research branch of the Compagnie Générale de Télégraphie Sans Fil (CSF) headed by Maurice Ponte with Henri Gutton, Sylvain Berline and M. Hugon, began developing an obstacle-locating radio apparatus, aspects of which were installed on the ocean liner Normandie in 1935.[16][17]

During the same period, Soviet military engineer P. K. Oshchepkov, in collaboration with Leningrad Electrophysical Institute, produced an experimental apparatus, RAPID, capable of detecting an aircraft within 3 km of a receiver.[18] The Soviets produced their first mass production radars RUS-1 and RUS-2 Redut in 1939 but further development was slowed following the arrest of Oshchepkov and his subsequent gulag sentence. In total, only 607 Redut stations were produced during the war. The first Russian airborne radar, Gneiss-2, entered into service in June 1943 on Pe-2 fighters. More than 230 Gneiss-2 stations were produced by the end of 1944.[19] The French and Soviet systems, however, featured continuous-wave operation that did not provide the full performance ultimately synonymous with modern radar systems.

Full radar evolved as a pulsed system, and the first such elementary apparatus was demonstrated in December 1934 by the American Robert M. Page, working at the Naval Research Laboratory.[20] The following year, the United States Army successfully tested a primitive surface-to-surface radar to aim coastal battery searchlights at night.[21] This design was followed by a pulsed system demonstrated in May 1935 by Rudolf Kühnhold and the firm GEMA in Germany and then another in June 1935 by an Air Ministry team led by Robert A. Watson-Watt in Great Britain.

The first workable unit built by Robert Watson-Watt and his team
A Chain Home tower in Great Baddow, Essex, United Kingdom
Memorial plaque commemorating Robert Watson-Watt and Arnold Wilkins

In 1935, Watson-Watt was asked to judge recent reports of a German radio-based death ray and turned the request over to Wilkins. Wilkins returned a set of calculations demonstrating the system was basically impossible. When Watson-Watt then asked what such a system might do, Wilkins recalled the earlier report about aircraft causing radio interference. This revelation led to the Daventry Experiment of 26 February 1935, using a powerful BBC shortwave transmitter as the source and their GPO receiver setup in a field while a bomber flew around the site. When the plane was clearly detected, Hugh Dowding, the Air Member for Supply and Research was very impressed with their system's potential and funds were immediately provided for further operational development.[22] Watson-Watt's team patented the device in GB593017.[23][24][25]

Development of radar greatly expanded on 1 September 1936 when Watson-Watt became Superintendent of a new establishment under the British Air Ministry, Bawdsey Research Station located in Bawdsey Manor, near Felixstowe, Suffolk. Work there resulted in the design and installation of aircraft detection and tracking stations called "Chain Home" along the East and South coasts of England in time for the outbreak of World War II in 1939. This system provided the vital advance information that helped the Royal Air Force win the Battle of Britain; without it, significant numbers of fighter aircraft would always need to be in the air to respond quickly enough if enemy aircraft detection relied solely on the observations of ground-based individuals. Also vital was the "Dowding system" of reporting and coordination to make best use of the radar information during tests of early deployment of radar in 1936 and 1937.

Given all required funding and development support, the team produced working radar systems in 1935 and began deployment. By 1936, the first five Chain Home (CH) systems were operational and by 1940 stretched across the entire UK including Northern Ireland. Even by standards of the era, CH was crude; instead of broadcasting and receiving from an aimed antenna, CH broadcast a signal floodlighting the entire area in front of it, and then used one of Watson-Watt's own radio direction finders to determine the direction of the returned echoes. This fact meant CH transmitters had to be much more powerful and have better antennas than competing systems but allowed its rapid introduction using existing technologies.

During World War II

A key development was the cavity magnetron in the UK, which allowed the creation of relatively small systems with sub-meter resolution. Britain shared the technology with the U.S. during the 1940 Tizard Mission.[26][27]

In April 1940, Popular Science showed an example of a radar unit using the Watson-Watt patent in an article on air defence.[28] Also, in late 1941 Popular Mechanics had an article in which a U.S. scientist speculated about the British early warning system on the English east coast and came close to what it was and how it worked.[29] Watson-Watt was sent to the U.S. in 1941 to advise on air defense after Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor.[30] Alfred Lee Loomis organized the secret MIT Radiation Laboratory at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts which developed microwave radar technology in the years 1941–45. Later, in 1943, Page greatly improved radar with the monopulse technique that was used for many years in most radar applications.[31]

The war precipitated research to find better resolution, more portability, and more features for radar, including complementary navigation systems like Oboe used by the RAF's Pathfinder.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Radar
Alemannisch: Radar
العربية: رادار
অসমীয়া: ৰাডাৰ
asturianu: Radar
azərbaycanca: Radar
বাংলা: রাডার
беларуская: Радар
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Радыёлякацыйная станцыя
български: Радиолокатор
bosanski: Radar
brezhoneg: Radar
català: Radar
čeština: Radar
Cymraeg: Radar
dansk: Radar
Deutsch: Radar
eesti: Radar
Ελληνικά: Ραντάρ
español: Radar
Esperanto: Radaro
euskara: Radar
فارسی: رادار
français: Radar
Frysk: Radar
Gaeilge: Radar
galego: Radar
贛語: 雷達
한국어: 레이더
हिन्दी: रडार
hrvatski: Radar
Bahasa Indonesia: Radar
íslenska: Ratsjá
italiano: Radar
עברית: מכ"ם
ಕನ್ನಡ: ರೇಡಾರ್
ქართული: რადარი
қазақша: Радар
Kiswahili: Rada
kurdî: Radar
ລາວ: ລາດາ
Latina: Radar
latviešu: Jūras radars
Lëtzebuergesch: Radar
lietuvių: Radaras
മലയാളം: റഡാർ
Bahasa Melayu: Radar
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ရေဒါ
Nederlands: Radar
日本語: レーダー
norsk: Radar
norsk nynorsk: Radar
occitan: Radar
Oromoo: Raadaarii
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਰਡਾਰ
پنجابی: ریڈار
پښتو: رادار
Patois: Riedaar
polski: Radar
português: Radar
Qaraqalpaqsha: Radar
română: RADAR
Scots: Radar
sicilianu: Radar
Simple English: Radar
slovenčina: Radar
slovenščina: Radar
српски / srpski: Радар
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Radar
suomi: Tutka
svenska: Radar
Tagalog: Radar
Türkçe: Radar
Türkmençe: Radar
українська: Радар
اردو: ریڈار
Tiếng Việt: Ra đa
walon: Radår
Winaray: Radar
粵語: 雷達
中文: 雷达