Chenopodium quinoa0.jpg
Scientific classification edit
C. quinoa
Binomial name
Chenopodium quinoa
Quinoa Ursprung Verbreitung.png
Natural distribution in red, Cultivation in green
Chenopodium quinoa near Cachilaya, Lake Titicaca, Bolivia

Quinoa (ɑː/ or ə/, from Quechua kinwa or kinuwa)[2] is a flowering plant (Chenopodium quinoa) in the amaranth family. It is a herbaceous annual plant grown as a grain crop primarily for its edible seeds. Quinoa is not a grass like wheat or rice, but rather a pseudocereal botanically related to spinach and amaranth (Amaranthus spp.). After harvest, the seeds are processed to remove the bitter-tasting outer seed coat.

Quinoa is rich in various nutrients; it provides protein, dietary fiber, B vitamins, and dietary minerals in amounts above those of wheat, corn, rice, and oats.[3][4] It is gluten-free, and virtually free of sodium, Vitamin A, and Vitamin C.[3]

Quinoa originated in the Andean region of northwestern South America,[5] and was domesticated three to four thousand years ago for human consumption in the Lake Titicaca basin of Peru and Bolivia, although archaeological evidence shows livestock uses dating to an earlier period, 5,200 to 7,000 years ago.[6] Since the early 21st century—when quinoa became more commonly consumed where it is not typically grown, in North America, Europe, and Australasia—the crop value (market price) increased greatly with the rise in demand.

History and culture

Quinoa was first domesticated by Andean peoples around 3,000 to 4,000 years ago.[7] It has been an important staple in the Andean cultures, where the plant is indigenous, but relatively obscure to the rest of the world.[8] The Incas, who held the crop to be sacred,[9] referred to it as chisoya mama or "mother of all grains", and it was the Inca emperor who would traditionally sow the first seeds of the season using "golden implements".[9]

During the Spanish conquest of South America, the colonists scorned it as "food for Indians",[10] and suppressed its cultivation, due to its status within indigenous religious ceremonies.[11] The conquistadors forbade quinoa cultivation at one point,[12] and the Incas were forced to grow wheat instead.[13]

Logo of the International Year of Quinoa, 2013

The United Nations General Assembly declared 2013 as the "International Year of Quinoa" [14][15][16] in recognition of the ancestral practices of the Andean people, who have preserved it as a food for present and future generations, through knowledge and practices of living in harmony with nature. The objective was to draw the world’s attention to the role that quinoa could play in providing food security, nutrition and poverty eradication in support of achieving Millennium Development Goals. Some academic commentary emphasised, however, that quinoa production could have ecological and social drawbacks in its native regions, and that these problems needed to be tackled.[17]

Other Languages
العربية: كينوا
Aymar aru: Jiwra
azərbaycanca: Kinoa
български: Киноа
català: Quinoa
čeština: Merlík čilský
dansk: Quinoa
Deutsch: Quinoa
Ελληνικά: Κινόα
Esperanto: Kvinoo
euskara: Kinoa
فارسی: کینوآ
français: Quinoa
galego: Quinoa
한국어: 퀴노아
हिन्दी: क्विन्वा
hrvatski: Kvinoja
Bahasa Indonesia: Kinoa
íslenska: Kínóa
עברית: קינואה
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಕೀನೋವಾ
Kapampangan: Quinoa
magyar: Kinoa
Bahasa Melayu: Kuinoa
Nederlands: Quinoa (plant)
日本語: キヌア
Nordfriisk: Kinoa
norsk: Quinoa
norsk nynorsk: Quinoa
português: Quinoa
română: Quinoa
Runa Simi: Kinwa
русский: Киноа
Scots: Quinoa
Simple English: Quinoa
slovenščina: Kvinoja
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Kinoa
suomi: Kvinoa
svenska: Quinoa
Tagalog: Quinoa
ไทย: คีนวา
Türkçe: Kinoa
українська: Кіноа
Tiếng Việt: Diêm mạch
粵語: 藜麥
中文: 藜麥