Quinisext Council

Council in Trullo (Quinisext Council)
Date692
Accepted byEastern Orthodoxy
Previous council
Third Council of Constantinople
Next council
Second Council of Nicaea
Convoked byEmperor Justinian II
PresidentJustinian II
Attendance215 (all Eastern)
Topicsdiscipline
Documents and statements
basis for Orthodox Canon law
Chronological list of ecumenical councils
Facial Chronicle - b.13, p.443 - Council in Trullo.gif

The Quinisext Council (often called the Council in Trullo, Trullan Council, or the Penthekte Synod) was a church council held in 692 at Constantinople under Justinian II. It is often known as the Council in Trullo, because like the Sixth Ecumenical Council it was held in a domed hall in the Imperial Palace (τρούλος [troulos] meaning a cup or dome). Both the Fifth and the Sixth Ecumenical Councils had omitted to draw up disciplinary canons, and as this council was intended to complete both in this respect, it took the name of Quinisext (Latin: Concilium Quinisextum, Koine Greek: Πενθέκτη Σύνοδος, Penthékti Sýnodos), i.e. the Fifth-Sixth Council. It was attended by 215 bishops, all from the Eastern Roman Empire. Basil of Gortyna in Crete, however, belonged to the Roman patriarchate and called himself papal legate, though no evidence is extant of his right to use that title.

Many of the Council's canons were reiterations. It endorsed not only the six ecumenical councils already held (canon 1), but also the Apostolic Canons, the Synod of Laodicea, the Third Synod of Carthage, and the 39th Festal Letter of Athanasius (canon 2).[1]

The Council banned certain festivals and practices which were thought to have a pagan origin[which?]. Therefore, the Council gives some insight to historians about pre-Christian religious practices.[2]

Many of the council's canons were aimed at settling differences in ritual observance and clerical discipline in different parts of the Christian Church. Being held under Byzantine auspices, with an exclusively Eastern clergy, these overwhelmingly took the practice of the Church of Constantinople as orthodox.[2] It explicitly condemned some customs of Armenian Christians – among them using wine unmixed with water for the Eucharist (canon 32), choosing children of clergy for appointment as clergy (canon 33), and eating eggs and cheese on Saturdays and Sundays of Lent (canon 56) – and decreed deposition for clergy and excommunication for laypeople who contravened the canons prohibiting these practices. Likewise, it reprobated, with similar penalties, the Roman custom of not allowing married individuals to be ordained to the diaconate or priesthood unless they vowed for perpetual continence (canon 13), and fasting on Saturdays of Lent (canon 55). Without contrasting with the practice of the Roman Church, it also prescribed that the celebration of the Eucharist in Lent should only happen in Saturdays, Sundays, and the feast of the Annunciation (canon 52). Grapes, milk and honey were not to be offered at the altar. Whoever came to receive the Eucharist should receive in the hand by holding his hands in the form of a cross. The Eucharist was not allowed to be given to dead bodies. During the liturgy the psalms were to be sung in modest and dulcet tones, and the phrase 'who was crucified for us' was not to be added to the Trisagion. Prelates were to preach the gospel as propounded by the fathers. Priests received special instructions on how to deal with those who were not baptized and they were also given rubrics to follow on how to admit heretics to the faith. [3]

In addition to these, the council also condemned clerics that had improper or illicit relations with women. It condemned simony and the charging of fees for administering the Eucharist. It enjoined those in holy orders from entering public houses, engaging in usurious practices, attending horse races in the Hippodrome, wearing unsuitable clothes or celebrating the liturgy in private homes without the consent of their bishops. Both clergy and laity were forbidden from gambling at dice, attending theatrical performances, or consulting soothsayers. No one was allowed to observe the Pagan festivals of Bota, the Kalends or the Brumalia. No one was allowed to own a house of prostitution, engage in abortion, arrange hair in ornate plaits or to promote pornography. It also ordered law students at the University of Constantinople to stop engaging in transvestitism. [4]

While the Orthodox Church widely considers this council an addendum to the Fifth and Sixth Ecumenical Councils, adding its canons thereto[citation needed], the Roman Catholic Church has never accepted the council as authoritative or in any sense ecumenical. In the West, Venerable Bede calls it (in De sexta mundi aetate) a "reprobate" synod, and Paul the Deacon an "erratic" one.[5] For the attitude of the Roman bishops, in face of the various attempts to obtain their approval of these canons see Hefele.[6] However, Pope Hadrian I did write favourably of the canons of this council.[7]

The Pope of the time of the council, Sergius I, who was of Syrian origin, rejected it, preferring, he said, "to die rather than consent to erroneous novelties": though a loyal subject of the Empire, he would not be "its captive in matters of religion" and refused to sign the canons.[8] Emperor Justinian II ordered his arrest and abduction to Constantinople by the notoriously violent protospatharios Zacharias.[9] However, the militia of the exarchate of Ravenna frustrated the attempt.[10] Zacharias nearly lost his life in his attempt to arrest Sergius I.[11][12] Louis Duchesne suggests that it was in protest against the Council's banning of representations of Christ as a Lamb that Pope Sergius introduced the singing of the Agnus Dei at the breaking of the host at Mass.[13]

In Visigothic Spain, the council was ratified by the Eighteenth Council of Toledo at the urging of the king, Wittiza (694 – probably 710), who was vilified by later chroniclers for his decision.[14] Fruela I of Asturias (757–768) reversed the decision.[14]

Notes

  1. ^ Canons of the Council in Trullo
  2. ^ a b Ostrogorsky, George; Hussey, Joan (trans.) (1957). History of the Byzantine state. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. pp. 122–23. ISBN 0-8135-0599-2.
  3. ^ Andrew Ekonomou. Byzantine Rome and the Greek Popes. Lexington Books, 2007
  4. ^ Andrew Ekonomou. Byzantine Rome and the Greek Popes. Lexington Books, 2007
  5. ^ Paul the Deacon, Hist. Lang., VI, p. 11.
  6. ^ "Conciliengesch." III, 345-48.
  7. ^ Schaff, Philip; Wace, Henry (1900). "Introductory Note: Council in Trullo". Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Series II, Vol. XIV. Charles Scribner's Sons. Retrieved 2007-07-05.[dead link]
  8. ^ Byzantine Rome and the Greek Popes (Lexington Books, 2007, ISBN 978-0-73911977-8), p. 222
  9. ^ Ekonomou (2007), p. 223
  10. ^ Ekonomou (2007), p. 224
  11. ^ Ekonomou (2007), p. 44
  12. ^ Walter Ullmann, A Short History of the Papacy in the Middle Ages (2nd edition, Routledge, 2003, ISBN 978-0-41530227-2), p. 64
  13. ^ Hugh Henry, "Agnus Dei (in Liturgy)" in Catholic Encyclopedia (New York, 1907)
  14. ^ a b Collins, 19.
Other Languages
čeština: Trullská synoda
slovenščina: Trulanska sinoda
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Trulski sabor
Türkçe: Trullo Konsili
українська: Трулльський собор
Tiếng Việt: Công đồng Quinisext