Quietism (Christian philosophy)

Quietism is the name given (especially in Roman Catholic Church theology) to a set of Christian beliefs that rose in popularity in France, Italy, and Spain during the late 1670s and 1680s, particularly associated with the writings of Miguel de Molinos (and subsequently François Malaval and Madame Guyon), and which were condemned as heresy by Pope Innocent XI in the papal bull Coelestis Pastor of 1687. The "Quietist" heresy was seen to consist of wrongly elevating "contemplation" over "meditation", intellectual stillness over vocal prayer, and interior passivity over pious action in an account of mystical prayer, spiritual growth and union with God (one in which, the accusation ran, there existed the possibility of achieving a sinless state and union with the Christian Godhead).

Since the late seventeenth century, "Quietism" has functioned (especially within Roman Catholic theology, though also to an extent within Protestant theology), as the shorthand for accounts which are perceived to fall foul of the same theological errors, and thus to be heretical. As such, the term has come to be applied to beliefs far outside its original context. The term quietism was not used until the 17th century, so some writers have dubbed the expression of such errors before this era as "pre-quietism".[1]

Key features of "Quietism"

Although both Molinos and other authors condemned in the late seventeenth century, as well as their opponents, spoke of the Quietists (in other words, those who were devoted to the "prayer of quiet", an expression used by Teresa of Avila, John of the Cross and others), "Quietism" was a creation of its opponents, a somewhat artificial systematisation made on the basis of ecclesiastical condemnations and commentary upon them. No single author, even Molinos (generally seen as the main representative of Quietist thought) advocated all the positions that formed the Quietism of later Catholic doctrinal textbooks – as such, at least one author suggests that it is better to speak of a Quietist tendency or orientation, one which may be located in analogous forms through Christian history.[2]

Other Languages
català: Quietisme
čeština: Kvietismus
dansk: Kvietisme
Deutsch: Quietismus
español: Quietismo
Esperanto: Kvietismo
français: Quiétisme
हिन्दी: मौनवाद
Bahasa Indonesia: Quietisme
interlingua: Quietismo
italiano: Quietismo
ქართული: კვიეტიზმი
magyar: Kvietizmus
Nederlands: Quiëtisme
polski: Kwietyzm
português: Quietismo
русский: Квиетизм
slovenčina: Kvietizmus
српски / srpski: Квијетизам
svenska: Kvietism
українська: Квієтизм
中文: 寂靜主義