Québec (French)
Je me souviens (French)
("I remember")
ConfederationJuly 1, 1867 (1st, with Ontario, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick)
CapitalQuebec City
Largest cityMontreal
Largest metroGreater Montreal
 • TypeConstitutional monarchy
 • Lieutenant GovernorJ. Michel Doyon
 • PremierFrançois Legault (CAQ)
LegislatureNational Assembly of Quebec
Federal representation(in Canadian Parliament)
House seats78 of 338 (23.1%)
Senate seats24 of 105 (22.9%)
 • Total1,542,056 km2 (595,391 sq mi)
 • Land1,365,128 km2 (527,079 sq mi)
 • Water176,928 km2 (68,312 sq mi)  11.5%
Area rankRanked 2nd
 15.4% of Canada
 • Total8,164,361 [1]
 • Estimate 
(2019 Q3)
8,484,965 [2]
 • RankRanked 2nd
 • Density5.98/km2 (15.5/sq mi)
Demonym(s)in English: Quebecer or Quebecker,
in French: Québécois (m)[3] Québécoise (f)[3]
Official languagesFrench[4]
 • Rank2nd
 • Total (2015)C$380.972 billion[5]
 • Per capitaC$46,126 (10th)
Time zoneUTC−5, −4
Postal abbr.
Postal code prefixG, H, J
ISO 3166 codeCA-QC
FlowerBlue flag iris[7]
TreeYellow birch[7]
BirdSnowy owl[7]
Rankings include all provinces and territories

Quebec (k/ (About this soundlisten);[8] French: Québec [kebɛk] (About this soundlisten))[9] is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is bordered to the west by the province of Ontario and the bodies of water James Bay and Hudson Bay; to the north by Hudson Strait and Ungava Bay; to the east by the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the province of Newfoundland and Labrador; and to the south by the province of New Brunswick and the US states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York. It also shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, and Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canada's largest province by area and its second-largest administrative division; only the territory of Nunavut is larger. It is historically and politically considered to be part of Central Canada (with Ontario).

Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada, after Ontario.[10] It is the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language. Most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, the capital. Approximately half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area, including the Island of Montreal. English-speaking communities and English-language institutions are concentrated in the west of the island of Montreal but are also significantly present in the Outaouais, Eastern Townships, and Gaspé regions. The Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited primarily by Aboriginal peoples.[11]

The climate around the major cities is four-seasons continental with cold and snowy winters combined with warm to hot humid summers, but farther north long winter seasons dominate and as a result the northern areas of the province are marked by tundra conditions.[12] Even in central Quebec, at comparatively southerly latitudes, winters are severe in inland areas.

Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Parti Québécois governments held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995. Although neither passed, the 1995 referendum saw the highest voter turnout in Quebec history, at over 93%, and only failed by less than 1%.[13] In 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the "Québécois as a nation within a united Canada".[14][15]

While the province's substantial natural resources have long been the mainstay of its economy, sectors of the knowledge economy such as aerospace, information and communication technologies, biotechnology, and the pharmaceutical industry also play leading roles. These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become an economically influential province within Canada, second only to Ontario in economic output.[16]

Etymology and boundary changes

The arrival of Samuel de Champlain, the father of New France, on the site of Quebec City

The name "Québec", which comes from the Algonquin word kébec meaning "where the river narrows", originally referred to the area around Quebec City where the Saint Lawrence River narrows to a cliff-lined gap. Early variations in the spelling of the name included Québecq (Levasseur, 1601) and Kébec (Lescarbot, 1609).[17] French explorer Samuel de Champlain chose the name Québec in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the administrative seat for the French colony of New France.[18] The province is sometimes referred to as "La belle province" ("The beautiful province").

The Province of Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of Canada[19] to Britain after the Seven Years' War. The proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River. The Quebec Act of 1774 expanded the territory of the province to include the Great Lakes and the Ohio River Valley and south of Rupert's Land, more or less restoring the borders previously existing under French rule before the Conquest of 1760.[20] The Treaty of Paris (1783) ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States.[21] After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada (present-day Quebec) and Upper Canada (present-day Ontario), with each being granted an elected legislative assembly.[22] In 1840, these become Canada East and Canada West after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada.[23] This territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867.[24] Each became one of the first four provinces.

In 1870, Canada purchased Rupert's Land from the Hudson's Bay Company and over the next few decades the Parliament of Canada transferred to Quebec portions of this territory that would more than triple the size of the province.[25] In 1898, the Canadian Parliament passed the first Quebec Boundary Extension Act that expanded the provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the local aboriginal peoples.[26] This was followed by the addition of the District of Ungava through the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912 that added the northernmost lands of the Inuit to create the modern Province of Quebec.[26] In 1927, the border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador was established by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Quebec officially disputes this boundary.[27]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Quebec
Alemannisch: Québec (Provinz)
አማርኛ: ኬበክ
Ænglisc: Quebec
العربية: كيبك
arpetan: Quèbèc
asturianu: Quebec
Atikamekw: Kepek askik
Avañe'ẽ: Québec
azərbaycanca: Kvebek
বাংলা: কেবেক
Bân-lâm-gú: Québec
беларуская: Квебек (правінцыя)
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Квэбэк
български: Квебек
bosanski: Québec
brezhoneg: Kebek
буряад: Квебек
català: Quebec
corsu: Quebec
dansk: Québec
Deitsch: Québec
Deutsch: Québec
eesti: Québec
español: Quebec
Esperanto: Kebekio
euskara: Quebec
فارسی: استان کبک
føroyskt: Québec
français: Québec
furlan: Québec
Gaeilge: Québec
Gaelg: Québec
Gàidhlig: Quebec
galego: Quebec
ગુજરાતી: ક્વિબેક
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Québec-sén
한국어: 퀘벡주
հայերեն: Քվեբեկ
हिन्दी: क्यूबेक
hrvatski: Québec
Ido: Kebekia
Ilokano: Quebec
Bahasa Indonesia: Québec
interlingua: Québec
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᑯᐸᐃᒃ
Ирон: Квебек
íslenska: Québec
עברית: קוויבק
Jawa: Quebec
kalaallisut: Québec
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಕ್ವಿಬೆಕ್
Kapampangan: Quebec
ქართული: კვებეკი
қазақша: Квебек
kernowek: Kebek
Kiswahili: Quebec
Kreyòl ayisyen: Kebèk
Ladino: Kebek
Latina: Quebecum
latviešu: Kvebeka
Lëtzebuergesch: Québec
lietuvių: Kvebekas
Ligure: Quebec
lingála: Kébeki
Lingua Franca Nova: Quebec
македонски: Квебек
Malagasy: Québec
മലയാളം: ക്യൂബെക്
Māori: Quebec
मराठी: क्वेबेक
მარგალური: კვებეკი
مصرى: كيبك
Bahasa Melayu: Quebec
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Quebec
монгол: Кэбэк
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ကွီဗက်ပြည်နယ်
Nederlands: Quebec (provincie)
Nedersaksies: Quebec (perveensie)
Nēhiyawēwin / ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᐏᐣ: ᑯᐯᒃ
日本語: ケベック州
Napulitano: Québec
Nordfriisk: Quebec
norsk: Québec
norsk nynorsk: Quebec
Nouormand: Qùubec
occitan: Quebèc
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Quebec (provinsiya)
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਕੇਬੈੱਕ
پنجابی: کیوبک
Papiamentu: Quebec
Picard: Kébec
Piemontèis: Québec
Plattdüütsch: Québec
polski: Quebec
português: Quebec
română: Québec
Runa Simi: Quebec pruwinsya
русский: Квебек
sardu: Québec
Scots: Quebec
sicilianu: Québec
Simple English: Quebec
slovenčina: Quebec
slovenščina: Québec
Soomaaliga: Quebec
کوردی: کێبێک
српски / srpski: Квебек
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Quebec
Sunda: Quebec
suomi: Quebec
svenska: Québec
Tagalog: Québec
தமிழ்: கியூபெக்
Taqbaylit: Kebek
татарча/tatarça: Квебек
Türkçe: Québec
українська: Квебек (провінція)
اردو: کیوبیک
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Kwébék
vèneto: Québec
Tiếng Việt: Québec
Volapük: Québec
Võro: Quebec
walon: Kebek
文言: 魁北克省
Winaray: Quebec
吴语: 魁北克省
ייִדיש: קוויבעק
粵語: 魁北克省
Zazaki: Québec
žemaitėška: Kvebeks
中文: 魁北克省