Quebec Québec ( ) French Motto(s): ( Je me souviens ) French ("I remember") Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st, with , Ontario , Nova Scotia ) New Brunswick Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Largest metro Greater Montreal Government • Type Constitutional monarchy • Lieutenant Governor J. Michel Doyon • Premier ( Philippe Couillard ) Liberal Legislature National Assembly of Quebec Federal representation (in ) Canadian Parliament House seats 78 of 338 (23.1%) Senate seats (22.9%) 24 of 105 Area • Total 1,542,056 km 2 (595,391 sq mi) • Land 1,365,128 km 2 (527,079 sq mi) • Water 176,928 km 2 (68,312 sq mi) 11.5% Area rank Ranked 2nd 15.4% of Canada Population ( ) 2016 • Total 8,164,361  • Estimate (2018 Q1) 8,439,925  • Rank Ranked 2nd • Density 5.98/km 2 (15.5/sq mi) Demonym(s) in : Quebecer or Quebecker, English in : French ( Québécois ) m Québécoise (  ) f  Official languages French  GDP • Rank 2nd • Total (2015) C$380.972 billion  • Per capita C$46,126 ( ) 10th Time zone −5, −4 UTC Postal abbr. QC  Postal code prefix , G , H J ISO 3166 code CA-QC Flower Blue flag iris  Tree Yellow birch  Bird Snowy owl  Website www .gouv .qc .ca Rankings include all provinces and territories Quebec ( / (; ) listen French:  Québec [kebɛk] () ) listen is one of the thirteen  . It is bordered to the west by the province of provinces and territories of Canada and the bodies of water Ontario and James Bay ; to the north by Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait ; to the east by the Ungava Bay and the province of Gulf of Saint Lawrence ; and to the south by the province of Newfoundland and Labrador and the New Brunswick of U.S. states , Maine , New Hampshire , and Vermont . It also shares New York with Nunavut, maritime borders , and Prince Edward Island . Quebec is Canada's largest province by area and its second-largest administrative division; only the territory of Nova Scotia is larger. It is historically and politically considered to be part of Nunavut (with Ontario). Central Canada
Quebec is the
populous province of second-most , after Ontario. Canada It is the only one to have a predominantly  population, with French-speaking as the sole provincial French . Most inhabitants live in urban areas near the official language between Saint Lawrence River and Montreal , the capital. Approximately half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area, including the Quebec City . Island of Montreal and English-language institutions are concentrated in the west of the island of Montreal but are also significantly present in the English-speaking communities , Outaouais , and Eastern Townships regions. The Gaspé region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited primarily by Nord-du-Québec . Aboriginal peoples The climate around the major cities is four-season  with cold and snowy winters combined with warm to hot humid summers, but farther north long winter seasons dominate and as a result the northern areas of the province are marked by continental conditions. tundra Even in central Quebec, at comparatively southerly latitudes, winters are severe in inland areas.  debates have played a large role in the Quebec independence . politics of the province Parti Québécois held referendums on governments in sovereignty and 1980 ; both were voted down by voters, the latter defeated by a very narrow margin. 1995 In 2006, the  passed House of Commons of Canada recognizing the " a symbolic motion as a nation within a united Canada." Québécois  
While the province's substantial
have long been the mainstay of its economy, sectors of the natural resources such as knowledge economy , information and communication technologies, aerospace , and the biotechnology also play leading roles. These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become an economically influential province within Canada, second only to Ontario in economic output. pharmaceutical industry 
Etymology and boundary changes
The name "Québec", which comes from the
word Algonquin kébec meaning "where the river narrows", originally referred to the area around Quebec City where the Saint Lawrence River narrows to a cliff-lined gap. Early variations in the spelling of the name included Québecq (Levasseur, 1601) and Kébec (Lescarbot, 1609). French explorer  chose the name Samuel de Champlain Québec in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the administrative seat for the French colony of . New France The province is sometimes referred to as "La belle province" ("The beautiful province").
was founded in the Province of Quebec after the Royal Proclamation of 1763 formally transferred the Treaty of Paris of French colony Canada to Britain after the  . The proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River. The Seven Years' War of 1774 expanded the territory of the province to include the Quebec Act and the Great Lakes Valley and south of Ohio River , more or less restoring the borders previously existing under French rule before the Conquest. Rupert's Land The  ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. Treaty of Versailles After the  , the territory was divided between Constitutional Act of 1791 (present-day Quebec) and Lower Canada (present-day Upper Canada ), with each being granted an elected legislative assembly. Ontario In 1840, these become  and Canada East after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Canada West . Province of Canada This territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at  in 1867. Confederation Each became one of the first four  .
In 1870, Canada purchased
from the Rupert's Land and over the next few decades the Hudson's Bay Company transferred to Quebec portions of this territory that would more than triple the size of the province. Parliament of Canada In 1898, the Canadian Parliament passed the first  that expanded the provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the local Quebec Boundary Extension Act . aboriginal peoples This was followed by the addition of the  through the District of Ungava that added the northernmost lands of the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912 to create the modern Province of Quebec. Inuit In 1927, the border between Quebec and  was established by the British Newfoundland and Labrador . Quebec Judicial Committee of the Privy Council . officially disputes this boundary
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