Qom

Qom
قم
City
کلانشهر قم · Qom Metropolis
QomView3.jpg
Official seal of Qom
Seal
Nickname(s): Religious Capital Of Iran
Qom is located in Iran
Qom
Qom
Coordinates: 34°38′24″N 50°52′35″E / 34°38′24″N 50°52′35″E / 34.64000; 50.87639
Country   Iran
Province Qom
County Central
Government
 •  Mayor Morteza Saghaeiannejad
Elevation 928 m (3,045 ft)
Population (2016)
 • Total 1,292,283
 • Population Rank in Iran 7th
Time zone IRST ( UTC+3:30)
 • Summer ( DST) IRDT ( UTC+4:30)
Postal code 37100
Area code(s) (+98) 25
Climate BWh
Website www.qom.ir

Qom ( About this sound  pronunciation ) ( Persian: قم‎) is the eighth largest city in Iran. It lies 125 kilometres (78 mi) by road southwest of Tehran and is the capital of Qom Province. At the 2016 census its population was 1,151,672 [1] (957,496 at the 2006 census, in 321,144 families), [2] comprising 545,704 men and 528,332 women. It is situated on the banks of the Qom River.

Qom is considered holy by Shiʿa Islam, as it is the site of the shrine of Fatimah bint Musa, sister of Imam `Ali ibn Musa Rida (Persian Imam Reza, 789–816 AD). The city is the largest center for Shiʿa scholarship in the world, and is a significant destination of pilgrimage. Qom is famous for a Persian brittle toffee known as Sohan (Persian:سوهان), considered a souvenir of the city and sold by 2,000 to 2,500 “Sohan” shops.

Qom has developed into a lively industrial centre owing in part to its proximity to Tehran. It is a regional centre for the distribution of petroleum and petroleum products, and a natural gas pipeline from Bandar Anzali and Tehran and a crude-oil pipeline from Tehran run through Qom to the Abadan refinery on the Persian Gulf. Qom gained additional prosperity when oil fields were discovered at Sarajeh near the city in 1956 and a large refinery was built between Qom and Tehran.

Geography

Qom, the capital of Qom province, is located 125 kilometers south of Tehran, on a low plain. The shrine of Fatima Masumeh, the sister of Imam Reza, is located in this city, which is considered by Shiʿa Muslims holy. The city is located in the boundary of the central desert of Iran (Kavir-e markazi). At the 2011 census its population was 1,074,036, [2] comprising 545,704 men and 528,332 women.

Qom is counted as one of the focal centers of the Shiʿa both in Iran and around the globe. Since the revolution, the clerical population has risen from around 25,000 to more than 45,000 and the non-clerical population has more than tripled to about 700,000. Substantial sums of money in the form of alms and Islamic taxes flow into Qom to the ten marja-i taqlid or "Source of Imitation" that reside there. [3] The number of seminary schools in Qom is now over fifty, and the number of research institutes and libraries somewhere near two hundred and fifty. [3]

Its theological center and the Fatima Masumeh Shrine are prominent features of Qom. Another very popular religious site of pilgrimage formerly outside the city of Qom but now more of a suburb is called Jamkaran. Qom’s proximity to Tehran has allowed the clerical establishment easy access to monitor the affairs and decisions of state. Many Grand Ayatollahs possess offices in both Tehran and Qom; many people simply commute between the two cities as they are only 156 kilometres or 97 miles apart. Southeast of Qom is the ancient city of Kashan. Directly south of Qom lie the towns of Delijan, Mahallat, Naraq, Pardisan City, Kahak, and Jasb. The surrounding area to the east of Qom is populated by Tafresh, Saveh, and Ashtian and Jafarieh.

View Of Southwestern Qom

Climate

Qom has a hot desert climate ( Köppen BWh) with low annual rainfall due to remoteness from the sea and being situated in the vicinity of the subtropical anticyclone aloft. Summer weather is very hot and essentially rainless, whilst in winter weather can vary from warm to – when Siberian air masses are driven south across the Elburz Mountains by blocking over Europe – frigid. An example of the latter situation was in January 2008 when minima fell to −23 °C or −9.4 °F on the 15th, whilst earlier similar situations occurred in January 1964 and to a lesser extent January 1950, January 1972 and December 1972.

Except for its hot and extremely dry summers, which are due to the city’s relatively low altitude among the hottest in inland Iran, all seasons are suitable for travelling to Qom.

Climate data for Qom (1986–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 23.4
(74.1)
26.5
(79.7)
35.5
(95.9)
36.5
(97.7)
41.5
(106.7)
44.2
(111.6)
47.0
(116.6)
45.5
(113.9)
41.6
(106.9)
36.6
(97.9)
28.6
(83.5)
22.5
(72.5)
47.0
(116.6)
Average high °C (°F) 10.2
(50.4)
13.6
(56.5)
19.1
(66.4)
26.0
(78.8)
31.8
(89.2)
37.9
(100.2)
40.3
(104.5)
39.4
(102.9)
34.9
(94.8)
27.7
(81.9)
18.9
(66)
12.2
(54)
26.0
(78.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.2
(39.6)
7.1
(44.8)
12.0
(53.6)
18.3
(64.9)
23.6
(74.5)
29.1
(84.4)
31.8
(89.2)
30.3
(86.5)
25.2
(77.4)
19.0
(66.2)
11.5
(52.7)
6.1
(43)
18.2
(64.8)
Average low °C (°F) −1.9
(28.6)
0.6
(33.1)
5.0
(41)
10.5
(50.9)
15.4
(59.7)
20.2
(68.4)
23.4
(74.1)
21.2
(70.2)
15.6
(60.1)
10.3
(50.5)
4.1
(39.4)
−0.1
(31.8)
10.4
(50.7)
Record low °C (°F) −23
(−9)
−11.2
(11.8)
−11
(12)
0.4
(32.7)
5.4
(41.7)
8.0
(46.4)
15.0
(59)
13.5
(56.3)
6.5
(43.7)
0.6
(33.1)
−7
(19)
−10.5
(13.1)
−23
(−9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 25.4
(1)
20.5
(0.807)
27.7
(1.091)
20.2
(0.795)
10.4
(0.409)
2.3
(0.091)
0.7
(0.028)
0.3
(0.012)
0.8
(0.031)
6.2
(0.244)
14.3
(0.563)
19.4
(0.764)
148.2
(5.835)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 4.4 4.1 4.2 3.9 2.0 0.4 0.2 0.1 0.3 1.8 2.6 3.2 27.2
Average snowy days 3.1 1.4 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.9 5.8
Average relative humidity (%) 66 58 48 42 33 24 23 24 26 38 52 66 41
Mean monthly sunshine hours 185.0 194.0 221.5 233.3 296.6 351.5 354.5 347.3 309.9 263.4 204.9 172.7 3,134.6
Source: Iran Meteorological Organization (records), [4] (temperatures), [5] (precipitation), [6] (humidity), [7] (days with precipitation and snow), [8] (sunshine) [9]
Other Languages
Afrikaans: Qom
العربية: قم
azərbaycanca: Qum (İran)
تۆرکجه: قوم
беларуская: Кум
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Кум (горад)
български: Кум (град)
català: Qom
čeština: Qom (město)
Cymraeg: Qom
dansk: Qom
Deutsch: Ghom
eesti: Qom
español: Qom (Irán)
Esperanto: Ĥomo
euskara: Qom (hiria)
فارسی: قم
français: Qom
한국어:
Հայերեն: Ղոմ
हिन्दी: कोम
hrvatski: Kom
Bahasa Indonesia: Qom
italiano: Qom
עברית: קום (עיר)
қазақша: Қом (қала)
Kurdî: Qum
Кыргызча: Кум шаары, Иран
lietuvių: Kumas
magyar: Kom (Irán)
Malagasy: Qom
مصرى: قم
Bahasa Melayu: Qom
Nederlands: Qom
norsk: Qom
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Qum (shahar)
پنجابی: قم
پښتو: قم
polski: Kom (miasto)
português: Qom
română: Qom
русский: Кум (город)
Scots: Qom
Simple English: Qom
српски / srpski: Ком (град)
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Kom
suomi: Qom
svenska: Qom
Tagalog: Qom
தமிழ்: கும்
тоҷикӣ: Қум
Türkçe: Kum, İran
Türkmençe: Kum (şäher)
українська: Кум (місто)
اردو: قم
Tiếng Việt: Qom
Winaray: Qom
粵語: 古姆
中文: 库姆