Punk subculture

Two UK punks in the late 1970s

The punk subculture includes a diverse array of ideologies, fashion, and other forms of expression, visual art, dance, literature and film. It is largely characterised by anti-establishment views and the promotion of individual freedom, and is centred on a loud, aggressive genre of rock music called punk rock. Its adherents are referred to as "punks".

Punk politics cover the entire political spectrum. The punk ethos is primarily made up of beliefs such as non-conformity, anti-authoritarianism, anti-corporatism, a do-it-yourself ethic, anti-consumerist, anti-conservative, anti-corporate greed, direct action and not "selling out".

There is a wide range of punk fashion, including deliberately offensive T-shirts, leather jackets, Dr. Martens boots, hairstyles such as brightly coloured hair and spiked mohawks, cosmetics, tattoos, jewellery and body modification. Women in the hardcore scene typically wore masculine clothing.[1]

An important aspect of punk was creating explicitly outward identities of sexuality. Everything that was normally supposed to be hidden was brought to the front.

Punk aesthetics determine the type of art punks enjoy, which typically has underground, minimalist, iconoclastic and satirical sensibilities. Punk has generated a considerable amount of poetry and prose, and has its own underground press in the form of zines. Many punk-themed films and videos have been made.

History

Punks in 1984

The punk subculture emerged in the United Kingdom, Australia, and the United States in the mid-1970s. Exactly which region originated punk has long been a matter of controversy within the movement.[2][3][4][5][6][7][8] Early punk had an abundance of antecedents and influences, and Jon Savage describes the subculture as a "bricolage" of almost every previous youth culture in the Western world since World War II, "stuck together with safety pins".[9] Various musical, philosophical, political, literary and artistic movements influenced the subculture.

In the late 1970s, the subculture began to diversify, which led to the proliferation of factions such as new wave, post-punk, 2 Tone, pop punk, hardcore punk, no wave, street punk and Oi!. Hardcore punk, street punk and Oi! sought to do away with the frivolities introduced in the later years of the original punk movement.[10] The punk subculture influenced other underground music scenes such as alternative rock, indie music, crossover thrash and the extreme subgenres of heavy metal (mainly thrash metal, death metal, speed metal, and the NWOBHM).[10] A new movement in the United States became visible in the early and mid-1990s that sought to revive the punk movement, doing away with some of the trappings of hardcore.

Other Languages
беларуская: Панк
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Панк
български: Пънк
català: Punk
čeština: Punk
corsu: Punk
Deutsch: Punk
eesti: Punk
español: Movimiento punk
Esperanto: Punka subkulturo
français: Mouvement punk
hrvatski: Punk
Bahasa Indonesia: Punk
italiano: Punk (cultura)
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Lëtzebuergesch: Punk
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magyar: Punk
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Bahasa Melayu: Punk
Nederlands: Punk (cultuur)
नेपाल भाषा: पंक सबकल्चर
norsk: Punk
norsk nynorsk: Pønkkultur
occitan: Punk
polski: Punk
português: Cultura punk
Ripoarisch: Panker
română: Subcultura punk
Runa Simi: Punk
русский: Панк
slovenčina: Pank
српски / srpski: Панк
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Punk (supkultura)
suomi: Punk
svenska: Punk
Tagalog: Punk
Türkçe: Punk kültürü
українська: Панки
中文: 龐克文化