Puerto Rico

Commonwealth of Puerto Rico
Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico  (Spanish)
Motto: "Joannes est nomen ejus" (Latin)
"John is his name"
Anthem: "La Borinqueña"[a]
"The Borinquenian"

"The Star-Spangled Banner"
Location of Puerto Rico
Location of Puerto Rico
StatusUnincorporated territory
and largest city
San Juan
18°27′N 66°6′W / 18°27′N 66°6′W / 18.450; -66.100
Official languagesSpanish (de facto)
English (de jure)[1]
Common languages
Ethnic groups
75.8% White
12.4% Black
3.3% Two or more races
0.5% Indigenous American & Alaskan Native
0.2% Asian
<0.1% Pacific Islander
7.8% Other[3]
DemonymPuerto Rican
Boricua (colloquial)
• President
Donald Trump (R)
• Governor
Ricardo Rosselló (NPP)
• Delegate
Resident Commissioner Jenniffer González (NPP)
Thomas Rivera Schatz (NPP)
Johnny Méndez (NPP)
Maite Oronoz Rodríguez
LegislatureLegislative Assembly
House of Representatives
Commonwealth within the United States
December 10, 1898
April 11, 1899[4]
March 2, 1917
July 25, 1952
• Total
9,104 km2 (3,515 sq mi)
• Water (%)
• 2017 estimate
3,337,177[5] (130th)
• 2010 census
• Density
375/km2 (971.2/sq mi) (29th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$125.861 billion[6] (75th)
• Per capita
$38,126[7] (29th)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$103.676 billion[8] (62th)
• Per capita
$30,586[9] (32nd)
Gini (2011)53.1[10]
HDI (2015)0.845[11]
very high · 40th
CurrencyUnited States dollar (USD)
Time zoneUTC−4 (Atlantic)
• Summer (DST)
UTC−4 (no longer observed)
Driving sideright
Calling code+1-787, +1-939
ISO 3166 codePR
Internet TLD.pr
  1. ^ "The Star-Spangled Banner" serves as the national anthem for the United States of America and its territories.
  2. ^ The term 'Commonwealth' does not describe or provide for any specific political status or relationship. It has, for example, been applied to both states and territories. When used in connection with areas under U.S. sovereignty that are not states, the term broadly describes an area that has a constitution of its adoption.[12]

Puerto Rico[a] (Spanish for "Rich Port"), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Spanish: Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, lit. "Free Associated State of Puerto Rico")[b] and briefly called Porto Rico,[c][18][19][20] is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea, approximately 1,000 miles (1,600 km) southeast of Miami, Florida.

An archipelago among the Greater Antilles, Puerto Rico includes the main island of Puerto Rico and a number of smaller ones, such as Mona, Culebra, and Vieques. The capital and most populous city is San Juan. Its official languages are Spanish and English, though Spanish predominates.[21] The island's population is approximately 3.4 million. Puerto Rico's history, tropical climate, natural scenery, traditional cuisine, and tax incentives make it a destination for travelers from around the world.

Originally populated by the indigenous Taíno people, the island was claimed in 1493 by Christopher Columbus for Spain during his second voyage. Later it endured invasion attempts from the French, Dutch, and British. Four centuries of Spanish colonial government influenced the island's cultural landscapes with waves of African slaves, Canarian, and Andalusian settlers. In the Spanish Empire, Puerto Rico played a secondary, but strategic role when compared to wealthier colonies like Peru and the mainland parts of New Spain.[22][23] Spain's distant administrative control continued up to the end of the 19th century, helping to produce a distinctive creole Hispanic culture and language that combined elements from the Native Americans, Africans, and Iberians.[24] In 1898, following the Spanish–American War, the United States acquired Puerto Rico under the terms of the Treaty of Paris. The treaty took effect on April 11, 1899.[4]

Puerto Ricans are by law citizens of the United States and may move freely between the island and the mainland.[25] As it is not a state, Puerto Rico does not have a vote in the United States Congress, which governs the territory with full jurisdiction under the Puerto Rico Federal Relations Act of 1950. However, Puerto Rico does have one non-voting member of the House called a Resident Commissioner. As residents of a U.S. territory, American citizens in Puerto Rico are disenfranchised at the national level and do not vote for president and vice president of the United States,[26] and do not pay federal income tax on Puerto Rican income. Like other territories and the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico does not have U.S. senators. Congress approved a local constitution in 1952, allowing U.S. citizens on the territory to elect a governor. A 2012 referendum showed a majority (54% of those who voted) disagreed with "the present form of territorial status". A second question asking about a new model, had full statehood the preferred option among those who voted for a change of status, although a significant number of people did not answer the second question of the referendum.[27] A fifth referendum was held on June 11, 2017, with "Statehood" and "Independence/Free Association" initially as the only available choices. At the recommendation of the Department of Justice, an option for the "current territorial status" was added.[28] The referendum showed an overwhelming support for statehood, with 97.18% voting for it, although the voter turnout had a historically low figure of only 22.99% of the registered voters casting their ballots.

In early 2017, the Puerto Rican government-debt crisis posed serious problems for the government. The outstanding bond debt had climbed to $70 billion at a time with 12.4% unemployment. The debt had been increasing during a decade long recession.[29] This was the second major financial crisis to affect the island after the Great Depression when the U.S. government, in 1935, provided relief efforts through the Puerto Rico Reconstruction Administration.[30] On May 3, 2017, Puerto Rico's financial oversight board in the U.S. District Court for Puerto Rico filed the debt restructuring petition which was made under Title III of PROMESA.[31] By early August 2017, the debt was $72 billion with a 45% poverty rate.[32]

In late September 2017, Hurricane Maria made landfall in Puerto Rico, causing devastating damage.[33] The island's electrical grid was largely destroyed, with repairs expected to take months to complete, provoking the largest power outage in American history.[34] Recovery efforts were somewhat slow in the first few months, and over 200,000 residents had moved to the mainland State of Florida alone by late November 2017.[35]


Puerto Rico means "rich port" in Spanish. Puerto Ricans often call the island Borinquén – a derivation of Borikén, its indigenous Taíno name, which means "Land of the Valiant Lord".[36][37][38] The terms boricua and borincano derive from Borikén and Borinquen respectively, and are commonly used to identify someone of Puerto Rican heritage. The island is also popularly known in Spanish as la isla del encanto, meaning "the island of enchantment".[39]

Columbus named the island San Juan Bautista, in honor of Saint John the Baptist, while the capital city was named Ciudad de Puerto Rico ("Rich Port City"). Eventually traders and other maritime visitors came to refer to the entire island as Puerto Rico, while San Juan became the name used for the main trading/shipping port and the capital city.[d]

The island's name was changed to "Porto Rico" by the United States after the Treaty of Paris of 1898.[41] The anglicized name was used by the U.S. government and private enterprises. The name was changed back to Puerto Rico by a joint resolution in Congress introduced by Félix Córdova Dávila in 1931.[42]

The official name of the entity in Spanish is Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico ("free associated state of Puerto Rico"), while its official English name is Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Puerto Rico
Alemannisch: Puerto Rico
አማርኛ: ፕዌርቶ ሪኮ
Ænglisc: Puerto Rico
العربية: بورتوريكو
aragonés: Puerto Rico
arpetan: Pôrto Rico
asturianu: Puertu Ricu
Aymar aru: Burinkin
azərbaycanca: Puerto-Riko
تۆرکجه: پورتو ریکو
Bân-lâm-gú: Puerto Rico
башҡортса: Пуэрто-Рико
беларуская: Пуэрта-Рыка
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Пуэрта-Рыка
भोजपुरी: पोर्तो रिको
Bikol Central: Puerto Rico
български: Пуерто Рико
Boarisch: Puerto Rico
bosanski: Portoriko
brezhoneg: Puerto Rico
català: Puerto Rico
Чӑвашла: Пуэрто-Рико
Cebuano: Puerto Rico
čeština: Portoriko
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Puerto Rico
Cymraeg: Puerto Rico
Deutsch: Puerto Rico
ދިވެހިބަސް: ޕުއެރްތޮ ރީކޯ
dolnoserbski: Puerto Rico
Ελληνικά: Πουέρτο Ρίκο
эрзянь: Пуэрто-Рико
español: Puerto Rico
Esperanto: Porto-Riko
estremeñu: Puertu Ricu
euskara: Puerto Rico
فارسی: پورتوریکو
føroyskt: Puerto Riko
français: Porto Rico
Frysk: Porto Riko
Gaeilge: Pórtó Ríce
Gagauz: Puerto Riko
Gàidhlig: Puerto Rico
galego: Porto Rico
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Puerto Rico
հայերեն: Պուերտո Ռիկո
hornjoserbsce: Puerto Rico
hrvatski: Portoriko
Ilokano: Puerto Rico
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: পুয়ের্তো রিকো
Bahasa Indonesia: Puerto Riko
interlingua: Porto Rico
íslenska: Púertó Ríkó
italiano: Porto Rico
Basa Jawa: Puerto Rico
ქართული: პუერტო-რიკო
қазақша: Пуэрто-Рико
kernowek: Puerto Rico
Kinyarwanda: Puwerito Riko
Kiswahili: Puerto Rico
Kreyòl ayisyen: Pòtoriko
kurdî: Porto Rîko
Кыргызча: Пуэрто-Рико
Ladino: Puerto Riko
لۊری شومالی: پورتوریکو
Latina: Portus Dives
latviešu: Puertoriko
Lëtzebuergesch: Puerto Rico
lietuvių: Puerto Rikas
Ligure: Pòrto Ricco
Limburgs: Puerto Rico
lingála: Puerto Rico
Lingua Franca Nova: Porto Rica
lumbaart: Puerto Rico
magyar: Puerto Rico
македонски: Порторико
Malagasy: Puerto Rico
მარგალური: პუერტო-რიკო
Bahasa Melayu: Puerto Rico
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Puerto Rico
Nāhuatl: Puerto Rico
Nederlands: Puerto Rico
нохчийн: Пуэрто-Рико
Nordfriisk: Puerto Riko
norsk nynorsk: Puerto Rico
Novial: Puerto Riko
occitan: Puerto Rico
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Puerto-Riko
پنجابی: پورٹو ریکو
Papiamentu: Puerto Rico
Patois: Puoto Riiko
Plattdüütsch: Puerto Rico
polski: Portoryko
português: Porto Rico
română: Puerto Rico
Runa Simi: Burinkin
русский: Пуэрто-Рико
sicilianu: Portu Ricu
Simple English: Puerto Rico
slovenčina: Portoriko
slovenščina: Portoriko
ślůnski: Portoryko
Soomaaliga: Buerto Riko
српски / srpski: Порторико
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Portoriko
Basa Sunda: Puérto Riko
svenska: Puerto Rico
Tagalog: Puerto Rico
татарча/tatarça: Пуэрто-Рико
тоҷикӣ: Пуэрто Рико
Türkçe: Porto Riko
Türkmençe: Puerto-riko
українська: Пуерто-Рико
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: پوئېرتو رىكو
Tiếng Việt: Puerto Rico
Volapük: Puertorikeäns
walon: Porto Rico
Winaray: Puerto Rico
吴语: 波多黎各
粵語: 波多黎各
Zazaki: Porto Riko
Zeêuws: Puerto Rico
žemaitėška: Puerta Rėks
中文: 波多黎各