Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico
Commonwealth of Puerto Rico
Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico
Nickname(s): 
"Isla del Encanto" (Spanish)
(English: "Island of Enchantment")
Motto(s): 
"Joannes est nomen ejus" (Latin)
(English: "John is his name")
Anthem: "La Borinqueña" (Spanish)
(English: "The Borinquenian")
Location of Puerto Rico
Location of Puerto Rico
Location of Puerto Rico
Sovereign stateUnited States
Before annexationCaptaincy General of Puerto Rico
Cession from SpainDecember 10, 1898
Current constitutionJuly 25, 1952
Capital
and largest city
San Juan
18°27′N 66°6′W / 18°27′N 66°6′W / 18.450; -66.100
Official languages
Common languages94.3% Spanish
5.5% English
0.2% French
0.1% other[2]
Ethnic groups
(2010)
75.8% White
12.4% Black
3.3% Two or more races
0.5% Indigenous American & Alaskan Native
0.2% Asian
<0.1% Pacific Islander
7.8% other[3]
Demonym(s)Puerto Rican
GovernmentDevolved presidential constitutional dependency
• Governor
Wanda Vázquez Garced (R)
Jenniffer González (R)
LegislatureLegislative Assembly
Senate
House of Representatives
Area
• Total
9,104 km2 (3,515 sq mi)
• Water (%)
1.6
Highest elevation
4,390 ft (1,340 m)
Population
• 2018 estimate
3,195,153[4][5] (136th)
• 2010 census
3,725,789
• Density
351/km2 (909.1/sq mi) (39th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$129.908 billion[6] (75th)
• Per capita
$39,763[6] (29th)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$104.557 billion[6] (62nd)
• Per capita
$32,004[6] (32nd)
Gini (2011)53.1[7]
high
HDI (2015)0.845[8]
very high · 40th
CurrencyUnited States dollar (US$) (USD)
Time zoneUTC-04:00 (AST)
Date formatmm/dd/yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+1-787, +1-939
USPS abbreviation
PR
ISO 3166 code
Internet TLD.pr

Puerto Rico[a] (Spanish for "Rich Port"; abbreviated PR),[10] officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Spanish: Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, lit. "Free Associated State of Puerto Rico")[b] and briefly called Porto Rico,[c][15][16][17] is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea, approximately 1,000 miles (1,600 km) southeast of Miami, Florida.

An archipelago among the Greater Antilles, located between the Dominican Republic and the US Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico includes the eponymous main island and several smaller islands, such as Mona, Culebra, and Vieques. The capital and most populous city is San Juan.[10] The territory's total population is approximately 3.4 million. Spanish and English are the official languages of the executive branch of government,[18] though Spanish predominates.[19]

Originally populated by the indigenous Taíno people, Puerto Rico was colonized by Spain following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1493.[10] It was contested by the French, Dutch, and British, but remained a Spanish possession for the next four centuries. The island's cultural and demographic landscapes were shaped by the displacement and assimilation of the native population, the forced migration of African slaves, and settlement from the Canary Islands and Andalusia. In the Spanish Empire, Puerto Rico played a secondary but strategic role compared to wealthier colonies like Peru and New Spain.[20][21] Spain's distant administrative control continued up to the end of the 19th century, producing a distinctive creole Hispanic culture and language that combined indigenous, African, and European elements.[22] On September 23, 1868, Ramón Emeterio Betances unleashed a revolt against Spanish rule, declaring for the first time the idea of Puerto Ricans as a distinct people, with right to sovereignty.[citation needed] This revolt, known as El Grito de Lares, was eventually put down by Spanish forces, but the movement continued. In 1898, following the Spanish–American War, the United States acquired Puerto Rico under the terms of the Treaty of Paris.[10] Since then, Puerto Rico has remained an unincorporated territorial possession, making it the world's oldest colony.[23]

Puerto Ricans have been citizens of the United States since 1917, and enjoy freedom of movement between the island and the mainland.[24] As it is not a state, Puerto Rico does not have a vote in the United States Congress, which governs the territory with full jurisdiction under the Puerto Rico Federal Relations Act of 1950. However, Puerto Rico does have one non-voting member of the House called a Resident Commissioner. As residents of a U.S. territory, American citizens in Puerto Rico are disenfranchised at the national level and do not vote for the president or vice president of the United States,[25] and only some residents pay federal income tax.[26][27][Note 1] Like other territories and the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico does not have U.S. senators. Congress approved a local constitution in 1952, allowing U.S. citizens of the territory to elect a governor. Puerto Rico's future political status has consistently been a matter of significant debate.[28][29]

In early 2017, the Puerto Rican government-debt crisis posed serious problems for the government. The outstanding bond debt had climbed to $70 billion at a time of an unemployment rate of 12.4%. The debt had been increasing during a decade-long recession.[30] This was the second major financial crisis to affect the island after the Great Depression when the U.S. government, in 1935, provided relief efforts through the Puerto Rico Reconstruction Administration.[31] On May 3, 2017, Puerto Rico's financial oversight board in the U.S. District Court for Puerto Rico filed the debt restructuring petition which was made under Title III of PROMESA.[32] By early August 2017, the debt was $72 billion with a 45% poverty rate.[33]

In late September 2017, Hurricane Maria made landfall in Puerto Rico, causing devastating damage.[34] The island's electrical grid was largely destroyed, provoking the largest power outage in American history.[35] Recovery efforts were slow in the first few months, and over 200,000 residents had moved to the mainland state of Florida alone by late November 2017.[36]

Etymology

Puerto Rico is Spanish for "rich port".[10] Puerto Ricans often call the island Borinquén – a derivation of Borikén, its indigenous Taíno name, which means "Land of the Valiant Lord".[37][38][39] The terms boricua and borincano derive from Borikén and Borinquen respectively, and are commonly used to identify someone of Puerto Rican heritage.[citation needed] The island is also popularly known in Spanish as la isla del encanto, meaning "the island of enchantment".[40]

Columbus named the island San Juan Bautista, in honor of Saint John the Baptist, while the capital city was named Ciudad de Puerto Rico ("Rich Port City").[10] Eventually traders and other maritime visitors came to refer to the entire island as Puerto Rico, while San Juan became the name used for the main trading/shipping port and the capital city.[d]

The island's name was changed to Porto Rico by the United States after the Treaty of Paris of 1898.[42] The anglicized name was used by the U.S. government and private enterprises. The name was changed back to Puerto Rico by a joint resolution in Congress introduced by Félix Córdova Dávila in 1931.[43]

The official name of the entity in Spanish is Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico ("free associated state of Puerto Rico"), while its official English name is Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.[10]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Puerto Rico
Alemannisch: Puerto Rico
አማርኛ: ፕዌርቶ ሪኮ
Ænglisc: Puerto Rico
العربية: بورتوريكو
aragonés: Puerto Rico
arpetan: Pôrto Rico
asturianu: Puertu Ricu
Aymar aru: Burinkin
azərbaycanca: Puerto-Riko
تۆرکجه: پورتو ریکو
Bân-lâm-gú: Puerto Rico
башҡортса: Пуэрто-Рико
беларуская: Пуэрта-Рыка
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Пуэрта-Рыка
भोजपुरी: पोर्तो रिको
Bikol Central: Puerto Rico
български: Пуерто Рико
Boarisch: Puerto Rico
bosanski: Portoriko
brezhoneg: Puerto Rico
català: Puerto Rico
Чӑвашла: Пуэрто-Рико
Cebuano: Puerto Rico
čeština: Portoriko
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Puerto Rico
Cymraeg: Puerto Rico
Deutsch: Puerto Rico
ދިވެހިބަސް: ޕުއެރްތޮ ރީކޯ
dolnoserbski: Puerto Rico
Ελληνικά: Πουέρτο Ρίκο
эрзянь: Пуэрто-Рико
español: Puerto Rico
Esperanto: Porto-Riko
estremeñu: Puertu Ricu
euskara: Puerto Rico
فارسی: پورتوریکو
føroyskt: Puerto Riko
français: Porto Rico
Frysk: Porto Riko
Gaeilge: Pórtó Ríce
Gagauz: Puerto Riko
Gàidhlig: Puerto Rico
galego: Porto Rico
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Puerto Rico
հայերեն: Պուերտո Ռիկո
hornjoserbsce: Puerto Rico
hrvatski: Portoriko
Ilokano: Puerto Rico
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: পুয়ের্তো রিকো
Bahasa Indonesia: Puerto Riko
interlingua: Porto Rico
íslenska: Púertó Ríkó
italiano: Porto Rico
ქართული: პუერტო-რიკო
қазақша: Пуэрто-Рико
kernowek: Puerto Rico
Kinyarwanda: Puwerito Riko
Kiswahili: Puerto Rico
Kreyòl ayisyen: Pòtoriko
kurdî: Porto Rîko
Кыргызча: Пуэрто-Рико
Ladino: Puerto Riko
لۊری شومالی: پورتوریکو
Latina: Portus Dives
latviešu: Puertoriko
Lëtzebuergesch: Puerto Rico
lietuvių: Puerto Rikas
Ligure: Pòrto Ricco
Limburgs: Puerto Rico
lingála: Puerto Rico
Lingua Franca Nova: Porto Rica
lumbaart: Puerto Rico
magyar: Puerto Rico
македонски: Порторико
Malagasy: Puerto Rico
მარგალური: პუერტო-რიკო
Bahasa Melayu: Puerto Rico
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Puerto Rico
Nāhuatl: Puerto Rico
Nederlands: Puerto Rico
нохчийн: Пуэрто-Рико
Nordfriisk: Puerto Riko
norsk nynorsk: Puerto Rico
Novial: Puerto Riko
occitan: Puerto Rico
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Puerto-Riko
پنجابی: پورٹو ریکو
Papiamentu: Puerto Rico
Patois: Puoto Riiko
Plattdüütsch: Puerto Rico
polski: Portoryko
português: Porto Rico
română: Puerto Rico
Runa Simi: Burinkin
русский: Пуэрто-Рико
sicilianu: Portu Ricu
Simple English: Puerto Rico
slovenčina: Portoriko
slovenščina: Portoriko
ślůnski: Portoryko
Soomaaliga: Buerto Riko
српски / srpski: Порторико
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Portoriko
svenska: Puerto Rico
Tagalog: Puerto Rico
татарча/tatarça: Пуэрто-Рико
тоҷикӣ: Пуэрто Рико
Türkçe: Porto Riko
Türkmençe: Puerto-riko
українська: Пуерто-Рико
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: پوئېرتو رىكو
Tiếng Việt: Puerto Rico
Volapük: Puertorikeäns
walon: Porto Rico
Winaray: Puerto Rico
吴语: 波多黎各
粵語: 波多黎各
Zazaki: Porto Riko
Zeêuws: Puerto Rico
žemaitėška: Puerta Rėks
中文: 波多黎各