Psychology

Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought. It is an academic discipline of immense scope and diverse interests that, when taken together, seek an understanding of the emergent properties of brains, and all the variety of epiphenomena they manifest. As a social science it aims to understand individuals and groups by establishing general principles and researching specific cases.[1][2]

In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist and can be classified as a social, behavioral, or cognitive scientist. Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior, while also exploring the physiological and biological processes that underlie cognitive functions and behaviors.

Psychologists explore behavior and mental processes, including perception, cognition, attention, emotion (affect), intelligence, phenomenology, motivation (conation), brain functioning, and personality. This extends to interaction between people, such as interpersonal relationships, including psychological resilience, family resilience, and other areas. Psychologists of diverse orientations also consider the unconscious mind.[3] Psychologists employ empirical methods to infer causal and correlational relationships between psychosocial variables. In addition, or in opposition, to employing empirical and deductive methods, some—especially clinical and counseling psychologists—at times rely upon symbolic interpretation and other inductive techniques. Psychology has been described as a "hub science" in that medicine tends to draw psychological research via neurology and psychiatry, whereas social sciences most commonly draws directly from sub-disciplines within psychology.[4]

While psychological knowledge is often applied to the assessment and treatment of mental health problems, it is also directed towards understanding and solving problems in several spheres of human activity. By many accounts psychology ultimately aims to benefit society.[5][6] The majority of psychologists are involved in some kind of therapeutic role, practicing in clinical, counseling, or school settings. Many do scientific research on a wide range of topics related to mental processes and behavior, and typically work in university psychology departments or teach in other academic settings (e.g., medical schools, hospitals). Some are employed in industrial and organizational settings, or in other areas[7] such as human development and aging, sports, health, and the media, as well as in forensic investigation and other aspects of law.

Etymology and definitions

The word psychology derives from Greek roots meaning study of the psyche, or soul (ψυχή psychē, "breath, spirit, soul" and -λογία -logia, "study of" or "research").[8] The Latin word psychologia was first used by the Croatian humanist and Latinist Marko Marulić in his book, Psichiologia de ratione animae humanae in the late 15th century or early 16th century.[9] The earliest known reference to the word psychology in English was by Steven Blankaart in 1694 in The Physical Dictionary which refers to "Anatomy, which treats the Body, and Psychology, which treats of the Soul."[10]

In 1890, William James defined psychology as "the science of mental life, both of its phenomena and their conditions". This definition enjoyed widespread currency for decades. However, this meaning was contested, notably by radical behaviorists such as John B. Watson, who in his 1913 manifesto defined the discipline of psychology as the acquisition of information useful to the control of behavior. Also since James defined it, the term more strongly connotes techniques of scientific experimentation.[11][12] Folk psychology refers to the understanding of ordinary people, as contrasted with that of psychology professionals.[13]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Sielkunde
Alemannisch: Psychologie
العربية: علم النفس
aragonés: Psicolochía
অসমীয়া: মনোবিজ্ঞান
asturianu: Sicoloxía
Avañe'ẽ: Apytu'ũkuaaty
azərbaycanca: Psixologiya
تۆرکجه: سایکولوژی
Bân-lâm-gú: Sim-lí-ha̍k
башҡортса: Психология
беларуская: Псіхалогія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Псыхалёгія
भोजपुरी: मनोबिज्ञान
български: Психология
bosanski: Psihologija
brezhoneg: Bredoniezh
català: Psicologia
Чӑвашла: Психологи
Cebuano: Sikolohiya
čeština: Psychologie
corsu: Psicologia
Cymraeg: Seicoleg
dansk: Psykologi
Deutsch: Psychologie
Ελληνικά: Ψυχολογία
español: Psicología
Esperanto: Psikologio
estremeñu: Sicologia
euskara: Psikologia
Fiji Hindi: Psychology
føroyskt: Sálarfrøði
français: Psychologie
Frysk: Psychology
furlan: Psicologjie
Gaelg: Shicklaage
Gàidhlig: Eòlas-inntinn
galego: Psicoloxía
ગુજરાતી: મનોવિજ્ઞાન
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Sîm-lî-ho̍k
한국어: 심리학
हिन्दी: मनोविज्ञान
hrvatski: Psihologija
Ilokano: Sikolohia
Bahasa Indonesia: Psikologi
interlingua: Psychologia
Interlingue: Psichologie
íslenska: Sálfræði
italiano: Psicologia
Basa Jawa: Psikologi
kalaallisut: Tarnip ilinniarnera
ქართული: ფსიქოლოგია
kaszëbsczi: Psychòlogijô
қазақша: Психология
Kiswahili: Elimunafsia
kurdî: Psîkolojî
Кыргызча: Психология
Ladino: Psikolojiya
Latina: Psychologia
latviešu: Psiholoģija
Lëtzebuergesch: Psychologie
lietuvių: Psichologija
Ligure: Psicologia
Limburgs: Psychologie
Lingua Franca Nova: Psicolojia
la .lojban.: menske
मैथिली: मनोविज्ञान
македонски: Психологија
მარგალური: ფსიქოლოგია
مازِرونی: روان‌شناسی
Bahasa Melayu: Psikologi
Mirandés: Psicologie
မြန်မာဘာသာ: စိတ်ပညာ
Nederlands: Psychologie
Nedersaksies: Psychologie
नेपाली: मनोविज्ञान
नेपाल भाषा: साइकोलोजी
日本語: 心理学
Napulitano: Psicologgia
нохчийн: Психологи
Nordfriisk: Psüchologii
norsk: Psykologi
norsk nynorsk: Psykologi
Nouormand: Psychologie
Novial: Psikologia
occitan: Psicologia
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Psixologiya
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਮਨੋਵਿਗਿਆਨ
پنجابی: نفسیات
پښتو: ساپوهنه
Patois: Saikalaji
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ចិត្តវិទ្យា
Picard: Psicologie
Piemontèis: Psicologìa
Tok Pisin: Saikolosi
polski: Psychologia
português: Psicologia
română: Psihologie
rumantsch: Psicologia
Runa Simi: Nuna yachay
русиньскый: Псіхолоґія
русский: Психология
саха тыла: Психология
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱢᱚᱱ ᱥᱟᱬᱮᱥ
Gagana Samoa: Saikolosi
sardu: Psicologia
Seeltersk: Psychologie
Sesotho: Saekholoji
sicilianu: Psicoluggìa
Simple English: Psychology
سنڌي: نفسيات
slovenčina: Psychológia
slovenščina: Psihologija
Soomaaliga: Cilminafsi
српски / srpski: Психологија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Psihologija
Basa Sunda: Psikologi
suomi: Psykologia
svenska: Psykologi
Tagalog: Sikolohiya
தமிழ்: உளவியல்
Taqbaylit: Tasnafsit
татарча/tatarça: Психология
Türkçe: Psikoloji
Thuɔŋjäŋ: Piööcëkuɛ̈nnhom
українська: Психологія
اردو: نفسیات
Vahcuengh: Simleixhag
vèneto: Sicołogia
Tiếng Việt: Tâm lý học
West-Vlams: Psychologie
Winaray: Psikolohiya
吴语: 心理学
ייִדיש: פסיכאלאגיע
粵語: 心理學
Zazaki: Psikolociye
Zeêuws: Psyholohie
žemaitėška: Psikoluogėjė
中文: 心理学