|Part of |
Proto-Indo-Iranian or Proto-Indo-Iranic is the
Proto-Indo-Iranian was a
|*i *ī||*u *ū|
In addition to the vowels, *H, and *r̥ could function as the syllabic core.
Proto-Indo-Iranian is hypothesized to contain two series of stops or affricates in the palatal to postalveolar region. The phonetic nature of this contrast is not clear, and hence they are usually referred to as the primary or first series (*ĉ *ĵ *ĵʰ, continuing Proto-Indo-European palatovelar *ḱ *ǵ *ǵʰ) and the second or secondary series (*č *ǰ *ǰʰ, continuing Proto-Indo-European plain and labialized velars, *k, *g, *gʰ and *kʷ, *gʷ, *gʷʰ, in palatalizing contexts).
The following table shows the most common reflexes of the two series (
|*ĉ||ś ([ɕ])||*ts||s||θ||ċ ([ts]) / š|
|*ĵ||j ([ɟ])||*dz||z||d||j ([dz]) / z|
|*ǰ||j ([ɟ])||*ǰ||ǰ||ǰ||ǰ / ž|
Proto-Indo-European is usually hypothesized to have had three to four laryngeal consonants, each of which could occur in either syllabic or non-syllabic positions. In Proto-Indo-Iranian, the laryngeals merged as one phoneme /*H/. Beekes suggests that some instances of this /*H/ survived into Rigvedic Sanskrit and Avestan as unwritten
Like Proto-Indo-European and Vedic Sanskrit (and also Avestan, though it was not written down), Proto-Indo-Iranian had a