Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh

Prince Philip
Duke of Edinburgh (more)
Prince Philip March 2015 (cropped).jpg
Prince Philip in 2015
Consort of the British monarch
Tenure6 February 1952 – present
Born (1921-06-10) 10 June 1921 (age 97)
Mon Repos, Corfu, Kingdom of Greece
Spouse
Elizabeth II (m. 1947)
Issue
Detail
HouseGlücksburg
FatherPrince Andrew of Greece and Denmark
MotherPrincess Alice of Battenberg
SignaturePrince Philip's signature
Military career
Allegiance United Kingdom
Service/branch Royal Navy
 British Army
 Royal Air Force
Years of service1939–1952
(active service)
RankAdmiral of the Fleet
Field Marshal
Marshal of the Royal Air Force
Commands heldHMS Magpie
Battles/warsSecond World War
Awards

Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (born Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark,[1] 10 June 1921),[fn 1] is the husband of Queen Elizabeth II.

Philip was born into the Greek and Danish royal families. He was born in Greece, but his family was exiled from the country when he was an infant. After being educated in France, Germany and the United Kingdom, he joined the British Royal Navy in 1939, aged 18. From July 1939, he began corresponding with the 13-year-old Princess Elizabeth, whom he had first met in 1934. During the Second World War he served with distinction in the Mediterranean and Pacific Fleets.

After the war, Philip was granted permission by George VI to marry Elizabeth. Before the official announcement of their engagement in July 1947, he abandoned his Greek and Danish royal titles and became a naturalised British subject, adopting the surname Mountbatten from his maternal grandparents. He married Elizabeth on 20 November 1947. Just before the wedding, he was created Baron Greenwich, Earl of Merioneth and Duke of Edinburgh. Philip left active military service when Elizabeth became queen in 1952, having reached the rank of commander, and was formally made a British prince in 1957.

Philip and Elizabeth have four children: Prince Charles, Princess Anne, Prince Andrew, and Prince Edward. Through a British Order in Council issued in 1960, descendants of the couple not bearing royal styles and titles can use the surname Mountbatten-Windsor, which has also been used by some members of the royal family who do hold titles, such as Princess Anne and Princes Andrew and Edward.

A keen sports enthusiast, Philip helped develop the equestrian event of carriage driving. He is a patron, president or member of over 780 organisations and serves as chairman of The Duke of Edinburgh's Award for people aged 14 to 24. He is the longest-serving consort of a reigning British monarch and the oldest ever male member of the British royal family. Philip retired from his royal duties on 2 August 2017, at the age of 96, having completed 22,219 solo engagements since 1952.

Early life

Mon Repos, Philip's birthplace

Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark was born in Mon Repos on the Greek island of Corfu on 10 June 1921, the only son and fifth and final child of Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark and Princess Alice of Battenberg.[2] Philip's four elder sisters were Margarita, Theodora, Cecilie, and Sophie. He was baptised in the Greek Orthodox rite at St. George's Church in the Old Fortress in Corfu. His godparents were his paternal grandmother Queen Olga of Greece, represented by Princess Olga of Greece and Denmark, and Alexandros S. Kokotos, the Mayor of Corfu, representing the people of Corfu.[3][unreliable source?]

Shortly after Philip's birth, his maternal grandfather, Prince Louis of Battenberg, then known as Louis Mountbatten, Marquess of Milford Haven, died in London. Louis was a naturalised British citizen, who, after a career in the Royal Navy, had renounced his German titles and adopted the surname Mountbatten, an Anglicized version of Battenberg, during the First World War due to Anti-German sentiment in Great Britain. After visiting London for the memorial, Philip and his mother returned to Greece where Prince Andrew had remained behind to command an army division embroiled in the Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922).[4]

The war went badly for Greece, and the Turks made large gains. On 22 September 1922, Philip's uncle, King Constantine I, was forced to abdicate and the new military government arrested Prince Andrew, along with others. The commander of the army, General Georgios Hatzianestis, and five senior politicians were executed. Prince Andrew's life was believed to be in danger, and Alice was under surveillance. In December, a revolutionary court banished Prince Andrew from Greece for life.[5] The British naval vessel HMS Calypso evacuated Prince Andrew's family, with Philip carried to safety in a cot made from a fruit box. Philip's family went to France, where they settled in the Paris suburb of Saint-Cloud in a house lent to them by his wealthy aunt, Princess George of Greece and Denmark.[6]

Because Philip left Greece as a baby, he does not have a strong grasp of the Greek language. In 1992, he said that he "could understand a certain amount".[7] Philip has stated that he has thought of himself as Danish, and his family spoke English, French, and German.[7] Philip, who in his youth was known for his charm, was linked to a number of women including Osla Benning.[8]

Other Languages
azərbaycanca: Filip Mauntbetten
Bikol Central: Prinsipe Felipe
Bahasa Indonesia: Philip Mountbatten
latviešu: Princis Filips
Lëtzebuergesch: Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
lietuvių: Princas Filipas
slovenčina: Philip Mountbatten