The title president is derived from the
Latin prae- "before" + sedere "to sit." As such, it originally designated the officer who presides over or "sits before" a gathering and ensures that debate is conducted according to the
rules of order (see also
speaker), but today it most commonly refers to an executive official in any social organization. Early examples are from the universities of
Cambridge (from 1464) and the founding
President of the Royal Society
William Brouncker in 1660. This usage survives today in the title of such offices as "
President of the Board of Trade" and "
Lord President of the Council" in the
United Kingdom, as well as "President of the Senate" in the
United States (one of the roles constitutionally assigned to the
vice president). The officiating priest at certain
Anglican religious services, too, is sometimes called the "president" in this sense. However, the most common modern usage is as the title of a
head of state in a
France, the president of a
Parlement evolved into a powerful
magistrate, a member of the so-called
noblesse de robe ("
nobility of the gown"), with considerable judicial as well as administrative authority. The name referred to his primary role of presiding over trials and other hearings. In the 17th and 18th centuries, seats in the Parlements, including presidencies, became effectively hereditary, since the holder of the office could ensure that it would pass to an heir by paying the crown a special tax known as the
paulette. The post of "first president" (premier président), however, could only be held by the
King's nominees. The Parlements were abolished by the
French Revolution. In modern France the chief judge of a court is known as its president (président de la cour).
The first usage of the word president to denote the highest official in a government was during the
Commonwealth of England. After the abolition of the monarchy the English
Council of State, whose members were elected by the House of Commons, became the
executive government of the Commonwealth. The Council of State was the successor of the
Privy Council, which had previously been headed by the
Lord President; its successor the Council of State was also headed by a Lord President, the first of which was
John Bradshaw. However, the Lord President alone was not head of state, because that office was vested in the council as a whole.
The modern usage of the term president to designate a single person who is the
head of state of a
republic can be traced directly to the
United States Constitution of 1787, which created the office of
President of the United States. Previous American governments had included "presidents" (such as the
president of the Continental Congress or the president of the
Massachusetts Provincial Congress), but these were presiding officers in the older sense, with no executive authority. It has been suggested that the executive use of the term was borrowed from early American colleges and universities, which were usually headed by a president. British universities were headed by an official called the "
Chancellor" (typically a ceremonial position) while the chief administrator held the title of "
Vice-Chancellor". But America's first institutions of higher learning (such as
Harvard University and
Yale University) didn't resemble a full-sized university so much as one of its constituent colleges. A number of colleges at
Cambridge University featured an official called the "president". The head, for instance, of
Magdalene College, Cambridge was called the master and his second the president. The first president of Harvard,
Henry Dunster, had been educated at Magdalene. Some have speculated that he borrowed the term out of a sense of humility, considering himself only a temporary place-holder. The presiding official of Yale College, originally a "rector" (after the usage of continental European universities), became "president" in 1745.
A common style of address for presidents, "
Mr/Mrs. President," is borrowed from British Parliamentary tradition, in which the presiding Speaker of the
House of Commons is referred to as "Mr/Mrs. Speaker." Coincidentally, this usage resembles the older French custom of referring to the president of a parlement as "Monsieur/Madame le Président", a form of address that in modern France applies to both the
President of the Republic and to chief judges. Similarly, the Speaker of the
Canadian House of Commons is addressed by
francophone parliamentarians as "Monsieur/Madame le/la Président(e)". In
Pierre Choderlos de Laclos's novel
Les Liaisons Dangereuses of 1782, the character identified as Madame la Présidente de Tourvel ("Madam President of Tourvel") is the wife of a magistrate in a parlement. The fictional name Tourvel refers not to the parlement in which the magistrate sits, but rather, in imitation of an aristocratic title, to his private estate.
Once the United States adopted the title of "president" for its republican head of state, many other nations followed suit.
Haiti became the first presidential republic in
Latin America when
Henri Christophe assumed the title in 1807. Almost all of the American nations that became independent from
Spain in the early 1810s and 1820s chose a US-style president as their chief executive. The first European president was the president of the
Italian Republic of 1802, a
client state of revolutionary France, in the person of
Napoleon Bonaparte. The first
African president was the
President of Liberia (1848), while the first
Asian president was the
President of the Republic of China (1912).
In the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, the powers of presidencies have varied from country to country. The spectrum of power has included presidents-for-life and hereditary presidencies to ceremonial heads of state.
Presidents in the countries with a democratic or representative form of
government are usually elected for a specified period of time and in some cases may be re-elected by the same process by which they are appointed, i.e. in many nations, periodic popular elections. The powers vested in such presidents vary considerably. Some presidencies, such as that of
Ireland, are largely ceremonial, whereas other systems vest the president with substantive powers such as the appointment and dismissal of
prime ministers or
cabinets, the power to declare
war, and powers of
veto on legislation. In many nations the president is also the
commander-in-chief of the nation's armed forces, though once again this can range from a ceremonial role to one with considerable authority.
In almost all states with a
presidential system of government, the president exercises the functions of
head of state and
head of government, i.e. the president directs the executive branch of government. When a President not only is head of state, but also head of government, is this, in Europe known to be a President of Counsel From the French Présidente du Conseil, used 1871-1940 and 1944-1958, as the
Fourth French Republics. In the
United States has the President always been both Head of State and Head of Government and has always had the title of President.
Presidents in this system are either directly elected by popular vote or indirectly elected by an electoral college or some other democratically elected body.
United States, the
President is indirectly elected by the
Electoral College made up of electors chosen by voters in the presidential election. In most states of the United States, each elector is committed to voting for a specified candidate determined by the popular vote in each state, so that the people, in voting for each elector, are in effect voting for the candidate. However, for various reasons the numbers of electors in favour of each candidate are unlikely to be proportional to the popular vote. Thus, in five close United States elections (
2016), the candidate with the most popular votes still lost the election.
president is directly elected for a six-year term by popular vote. The candidate who wins the most votes is elected president even without an absolute majority. The president may never get another term. The
2006 Mexican elections had a fierce competition, the electoral results showed a minimal difference between the two most voted candidates and such difference was just about the 0.58% of the total vote. The
Federal Electoral Tribunal declared an elected president after a controversial post-electoral process.
president is directly elected for a four-year term by popular vote. A candidate has to have more than 50% of the valid votes. If no candidates achieve a majority of the votes, there is a
runoff election between the two candidates with most votes. Again, a candidate needs a majority of the vote to be elected. In Brazil, a president cannot be elected to more than two consecutive terms, but there is no limit on the number of terms a president can serve.
African and some
Asian nations follow the presidential model.
A second system is the
semi-presidential system, also known as the
French model. In this system, as in the parliamentary system, there are both a president and a prime minister; but unlike the parliamentary system, the president may have significant day-to-day power. For example, in France, when his party controls the majority of seats in the
National Assembly, the
president can operate closely with the parliament and
prime minister, and work towards a common agenda. When the National Assembly is controlled by his opponents, however, the president can find himself marginalized with the opposition party prime minister exercising most of the power. Though the prime minister remains an appointee of the president, the president must obey the rules of parliament, and select a leader from the house's majority holding party. Thus, sometimes the president and prime minister can be allies, sometimes rivals; the latter situation is known in France as
cohabitation. Variants of the French semi-presidential system, developed at the beginning of the
Fifth Republic by
Charles de Gaulle, are used in
Sri Lanka and several
post-colonial countries which have emulated the French model. In Finland, although the 2000 constitution moved towards a ceremonial presidency, the system is still formally semi-presidential, with the
President of Finland retaining e.g. foreign policy and appointment powers.
parliamentary republic, is a parliamentary system in which the presidency is largely ceremonial with either
de facto or no significant executive authority (such as the
President of Austria) or
de jure no significant executive power (such as the
President of Ireland), and the executive powers rests with the
Prime Minister who automatically assumes the post as head of a majority party or coalition, but takes oath of office administered by the president. However, the president is head of the civil service, commander in chief of the armed forces and can dissolve parliament. Countries using this system include
A variation of the
parliamentary republic is a system with an
executive president in which the president is the head of state and the government but unlike a
presidential system, is elected by and accountable to a parliament, and referred to as president. Countries using this system include
South Africa and
Only a tiny minority of modern republics do not have a single head of state. Some examples of this are:
dictatorships, the title of president is frequently taken by self-appointed or military-backed leaders. Such is the case in many states:
Idi Amin in
Mobutu Sese Seko in
Ferdinand Marcos in
Saddam Hussein in
Iraq are some examples. Other presidents in authoritarian states have wielded only symbolic or no power such as
Craveiro Lopes in
Joaquín Balaguer under the "Trujillo Era" of the
President for Life is a title assumed by some
dictators to try to ensure that their authority or legitimacy is never questioned. Ironically, most leaders who proclaim themselves President for Life do not in fact successfully serve a life term. On the other hand, presidents like
Josip Broz Tito and
François Duvalier died in office.
Kim Il-sung was named
Eternal President of the Republic after his death.
In ancient Rome,
Lucius Cornelius Sulla appointed himself in 82 BC to an entirely new office, dictator
rei publicae constituendae causa ("dictator for the making of laws and for the settling of the constitution"), which was functionally identical to the dictatorate rei gerundae causa ("for the matter to be done," e.g., a military command against a specific enemy) except that it lacked any set time limit, although Sulla held this office for over two years before he voluntarily abdicated and retired from public life.
The second well-known incident of a leader extending his term indefinitely was Roman dictator
Julius Caesar, who made himself "
Perpetual Dictator" (commonly mistranslated as 'Dictator-for-life') in 45 BC. His actions would later be mimicked by the French leader
Napoleon Bonaparte who was appointed "First Consul for life" in 1802.
Several presidents have ruled until their death, but they have not proclaimed themselves as President for Life. For instance,
Nicolae Ceauşescu of
Romania, who ruled until his execution (see
As the country's head of state, in most countries the president is entitled to certain perquisites, and may have a prestigious residence, often a lavish mansion or palace, sometimes more than one (e.g. summer and winter residences, or a country retreat) Customary symbols of office may include an official uniform, decorations, a presidential seal, coat of arms, flag and other visible accessories, as well as military honours such as
ruffles and flourishes, and a presidential guard. A common presidential symbol is the
presidential sash worn most often by presidents in
Latin America and
Africa as a symbol of the continuity of the office.
United Nations member countries in columns, other entities at the beginning: