Portuguese Republic

República Portuguesa (Portuguese)
Anthem: "A Portuguesa"
EU-Portugal (orthographic projection).svg
EU-Portugal with islands circled.svg
Location of Portugal (dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (green)

and largest city
38°46′N 9°9′W / 38°46′N 9°9′W / 38.767; -9.150
Official language
and national language
regional language
Mirandese[note 1]
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential constitutional republic[4]
• President
Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa
António Costa
Eduardo Ferro Rodrigues
LegislatureAssembly of the Republic
24 June 1128
• Kingdom
25 July 1139
5 October 1143
23 May 1179
1 December 1640
23 September 1822
• Republic
5 October 1910
25 April 1974
25 April 1976[note 3]
1 January 1986
• Total
92,212 km2 (35,603 sq mi)[5] (109th)
• Water (%)
• 2018 estimate
10,276,617[6] (88th)
• 2011 census
• Density
111/km2 (287.5/sq mi) (97th)
GDP (PPP)2020 estimate
• Total
$358.070 billion[8] (47th)
• Per capita
$34,935[8] (43rd)
GDP (nominal)2020 estimate
• Total
$243.229 billion[8] (52nd)
• Per capita
$23,731[8] (36th)
Gini (2018)Positive decrease 31.9[9]
HDI (2018)Increase 0.850[10]
very high · 40th
CurrencyEuro[note 4] () (EUR)
Time zoneUTC (WET)
UTC−1 (Atlantic/Azores)
• Summer (DST)
UTC (Atlantic/Azores)
Note: Mainland Portugal and Madeira use WET/WEST, the Azores are 1 hour behind.
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy (CE)
Driving sideright
Calling code+351
ISO 3166 codePT
Internet TLD.pt
  1. ^ Mirandese, spoken in some villages of the municipality of Miranda do Douro, was officially recognized in 1999 (Lei n.° 7/99 de 29 de Janeiro),[1] awarding it an official right-of-use.[2] Portuguese Sign Language is also recognized.
  2. ^ By country of citizenship
  3. ^ Portuguese Constitution adopted in 1976 with several subsequent minor revisions, between 1982 and 2005.
  4. ^ Before 2002, the escudo.

Portugal (Portuguese: [puɾtuˈɣal]), officially the Portuguese Republic (Portuguese: República Portuguesa [ʁɛˈpuβlikɐ puɾtuˈɣezɐ]),[note 5] is a country located mostly on the Iberian Peninsula, in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland Europe, being bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain. Its territory also includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments.

Portugal is the oldest nation state on the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe and the world, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times. The pre-Celtic people, Iberians, Celts, Carthaginians and Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigoths and Suebi Germanic peoples. After the Muslim conquests of the Iberian Peninsula, most of the territory was part of Al-Andalus until their expulsion. Portugal as a country was established during the early Christian Reconquista. Founded in 868, the County of Portugal gained prominence after the Battle of São Mamede in 1128. The Kingdom of Portugal was later proclaimed following the Battle of Ourique in 1139, and independence from León was recognised by the Treaty of Zamora in 1143.[11]

In the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the world's major economic, political and military powers.[12][13][14] During this period, today referred to as the Age of Discovery, Portuguese explorers pioneered maritime exploration, notably under royal patronage of Prince Henry the Navigator and King John II, with such notable voyages as Bartolomeu Dias' sailing beyond the Cape of Good Hope (1488), Vasco da Gama's discovery of the sea route to India (1497–98) and the European discovery of Brazil (1500). During this time Portugal monopolized the spice trade, divided the world into hemispheres of dominion with Castille, and the empire expanded with military campaigns in Asia. However, events such as the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the country's occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, the independence of Brazil (1822) and a late industrialization compared to other European powers erased to a great extent Portugal's prior opulence.[15][16]

After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established, later being superseded by the Estado Novo authoritarian regime. Democracy was restored after the Carnation Revolution in 1974, ending the Portuguese Colonial War. Shortly after, independence was granted to almost all its overseas territories, including East Timor. The handover of Macau to China in 1999 marked the end of what can be considered the longest-lived colonial empire.

Portugal has left a profound cultural, architectural and linguistic influence across the globe, with a legacy of around 250 million Portuguese speakers, and many Portuguese-based creoles. It is a developed country with an advanced economy and high living standards.[17][18][19] Additionally, it is highly placed in rankings of moral freedom (2nd), peacefulness (3rd), LGBTI rights (7th in Europe),[20] democracy (8th),[21] press freedom (12th), stability (15th), social progress (18th), prosperity (26th), and HDI (40th). A member of the United Nations and the European Union, Portugal was also one of the founding members of NATO, the eurozone, the OECD, and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries.


The word Portugal derives from the Roman-Celtic place name Portus Cale;[22] a city where present-day Vila Nova de Gaia now stands, at the mouth of the River Douro in the north of what is now Portugal. The name of the city is from the Latin word for port or harbour, portus, but the second element of Portus Cale is the subject of numerous theories. The mainstream explanation for the name is that it is an ethnonym derived from the Castro people, also known as the Callaeci, Gallaeci or Gallaecia, a people who occupied the north-west of the Iberian Peninsula. The names Callaici and Cale are the origin of today's Gaia and Galicia.

Another, romantic theory has it that Cala was the name of a Celtic goddess (drawing a comparison with the Gaelic Cailleach a supernatural hag). A further theory is that Cale or Calle is a derivation of the Celtic word for port, like the Irish caladh or Scottish Gaelic cala. These explanations however would require the pre-Roman language of the area to have been a branch of Q-Celtic, which is not generally accepted. The region's pre-Roman language was Gallaecian Celtic.

Some French scholars believe the name may have come from 'Portus Gallus',[23] the port of the Gauls or Celts.

Around 200 BC, the Romans took the Iberian Peninsula from the Carthaginians during the Second Punic War, and in the process conquered Cale renaming it Portus Cale (Port of Cale) incorporating it to the province of Gaellicia with capital in Bracara Augusta (modern day Braga, Portugal). During the Middle Ages, the region around Portus Cale became known by the Suebi and Visigoths as Portucale. The name Portucale evolved into Portugale during the 7th and 8th centuries, and by the 9th century, that term was used extensively to refer to the region between the rivers Douro and Minho. By the 11th and 12th centuries, Portugale, Portugallia, Portvgallo or Portvgalliae was already referred to as Portugal.

Other Languages
Acèh: Portugéh
Адыгэбзэ: Португалэ
адыгабзэ: Португалие
Afrikaans: Portugal
Alemannisch: Portugal
አማርኛ: ፖርቱጋል
Ænglisc: Portugal
Аҧсшәа: Португалиа
العربية: البرتغال
aragonés: Portugal
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܦܘܪܛܘܓܠ
arpetan: Portugal
asturianu: Portugal
Avañe'ẽ: Poytuga
Aymar aru: Purtuwal
azərbaycanca: Portuqaliya
تۆرکجه: پورتوقال
Bali: Portugis
বাংলা: পর্তুগাল
Bân-lâm-gú: Phû-tô-gâ
башҡортса: Португалия
беларуская: Партугалія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Партугалія
भोजपुरी: पुर्तगाल
Bikol Central: Portugal
Bislama: Portugal
български: Португалия
Boarisch: Portugal
བོད་ཡིག: པོ་ཅུ་གྷལ།
bosanski: Portugal
brezhoneg: Portugal
буряад: Португал
català: Portugal
Чӑвашла: Португали
Cebuano: Portugal
čeština: Portugalsko
Chamoru: Portugal
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Portugal
chiShona: Portugal
chiTumbuka: Portugal
corsu: Portugallu
Cymraeg: Portiwgal
dansk: Portugal
davvisámegiella: Portugal
Deutsch: Portugal
ދިވެހިބަސް: ޕޯޗުގަލް
dolnoserbski: Portugalska
डोटेली: पोर्चुगल
eesti: Portugal
Ελληνικά: Πορτογαλία
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Purtugàl
español: Portugal
Esperanto: Portugalio
estremeñu: Portugal
euskara: Portugal
eʋegbe: Portugal
فارسی: پرتغال
Fiji Hindi: Portugal
føroyskt: Portugal
français: Portugal
Frysk: Portegal
Fulfulde: Portokeesi
furlan: Portugal
Gagauz: Portugaliya
Gàidhlig: A' Phortagail
galego: Portugal
ГӀалгӀай: Португали
ગુજરાતી: પોર્ટુગલ
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: पोर्तुगाल
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Phù-thò-ngà
한국어: 포르투갈
Hausa: Portugal
Hawaiʻi: Potugala
հայերեն: Պորտուգալիա
Արեւմտահայերէն: Փորթուկալ
हिन्दी: पुर्तगाल
hornjoserbsce: Portugalska
hrvatski: Portugal
Igbo: Portugal
Ilokano: Portugal
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: পর্তুগাল
Bahasa Indonesia: Portugal
interlingua: Portugal
Interlingue: Portugal
isiZulu: IPhothugali
íslenska: Portúgal
italiano: Portogallo
עברית: פורטוגל
Jawa: Portugal
Kabɩyɛ: Pɔritigaalɩ
kalaallisut: Portugal
Kapampangan: Portugal
къарачай-малкъар: Португалия
ქართული: პორტუგალია
kaszëbsczi: Pòrtugalskô
қазақша: Португалия
kernowek: Portyngal
Kinyarwanda: Porutigali
Kirundi: Portugal
Kiswahili: Ureno
Kreyòl ayisyen: Pòtigal
kurdî: Portûgal
Кыргызча: Португалия
Ladino: Portugal
лакку: Португал
لۊری شومالی: پورتغال
latgaļu: Portugaleja
Latina: Portugallia
latviešu: Portugāle
Lëtzebuergesch: Portugal
lietuvių: Portugalija
Ligure: Pòrtogallo
Limburgs: Portugal
lingála: Pulutugal
Lingua Franca Nova: Portugal
Livvinkarjala: Portugalii
la .lojban.: potygu'e
magyar: Portugália
मैथिली: पोर्चुगल
македонски: Португалија
Malagasy: Pôrtogaly
മലയാളം: പോർച്ചുഗൽ
Malti: Portugall
Māori: Potukara
მარგალური: პორტუგალია
مازِرونی: پرتغال
Bahasa Melayu: Portugal
Minangkabau: Portugis
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Buò-dò̤-ngà
Mirandés: Pertual
мокшень: Португалия
монгол: Португали
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ပေါ်တူဂီနိုင်ငံ
Dorerin Naoero: Portsiugar
Nederlands: Portugal
Nedersaksies: Portugal
नेपाली: पोर्चुगल
नेपाल भाषा: पोर्चुगल
日本語: ポルトガル
Napulitano: Purtuallo
нохчийн: Португали
Nordfriisk: Portugal
Norfuk / Pitkern: Porchugal
norsk: Portugal
norsk nynorsk: Portugal
Nouormand: Portugâ
Novial: Portugal
occitan: Portugal
олык марий: Португалий
Oromoo: Poorchugaal
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Portugaliya
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਪੁਰਤਗਾਲ
Pangasinan: Portugal
پنجابی: پرتگال
Papiamentu: Portugal
پښتو: پرتګال
Patois: Puotigal
Перем Коми: Португал
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ព័រទុយហ្គាល់
Picard: Portugal
Piemontèis: Portugal
Tok Pisin: Potugal
Plattdüütsch: Portugal
polski: Portugalia
Ποντιακά: Πορτογαλία
português: Portugal
Qaraqalpaqsha: Portugaliya
qırımtatarca: Portugaliya
reo tahiti: Pōtītī
română: Portugalia
romani čhib: Portugaliya
rumantsch: Portugal
Runa Simi: Purtugal
русиньскый: Портуґалія
русский: Португалия
саха тыла: Португалия
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱯᱳᱨᱛᱩᱜᱟᱞ
Gagana Samoa: Potukale
संस्कृतम्: पुर्तगाल
sardu: Portugallu
Scots: Portugal
Seeltersk: Portugal
Sesotho: Portugal
Sesotho sa Leboa: Portugal
shqip: Portugalia
sicilianu: Portugallu
සිංහල: පෘතුගාලය
Simple English: Portugal
سنڌي: پرتگال
SiSwati: IPhuthukezi
slovenčina: Portugalsko
slovenščina: Portugalska
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Портогалїꙗ
ślůnski: Portugalijo
Soomaaliga: Burtuqaal
کوردی: پورتوگال
Sranantongo: Portugesokondre
српски / srpski: Португалија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Portugal
Sunda: Portugal
suomi: Portugali
svenska: Portugal
Tagalog: Portugal
Taqbaylit: Portugal
tarandíne: Purtugalle
татарча/tatarça: Португалия
తెలుగు: పోర్చుగల్
tetun: Portugál
тоҷикӣ: Португалия
Tshivenda: Portugal
Türkçe: Portekiz
Türkmençe: Portugaliýa
удмурт: Португалия
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Portugis
українська: Португалія
اردو: پرتگال
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: پورتۇگالىيە
Vahcuengh: Buzdauzyaz
vèneto: Portogało
vepsän kel’: Portugalii
Tiếng Việt: Bồ Đào Nha
Volapük: Portugän
Võro: Portugal
walon: Portugal
文言: 葡萄牙
West-Vlams: Portugal
Winaray: Portugal
Wolof: Portugaal
吴语: 葡萄牙
Xitsonga: Phochugali
ייִדיש: פארטוגאל
Yorùbá: Pọ́rtúgàl
粵語: 葡萄牙
Zazaki: Portekiz
Zeêuws: Portuhal
žemaitėška: Puortogalėjė
中文: 葡萄牙
kriyòl gwiyannen: Potidjal