Portland, Oregon

Portland, Oregon
City
City of Portland
Portland and Mt Hood.jpg
Oregon Convention Center Dusk 1.jpg
Portland Oregon - White Stag sign at dusk.jpg
Portland, Oregon skyline from the Ross Island Bridge.jpg
StJohnsBridge.jpg
Flag of Portland, Oregon
Flag
Official seal of Portland, Oregon
Seal
Nickname(s): "Rose City"; "Stumptown"; "PDX"; see Nicknames of Portland, Oregon for a complete list.
Location of Portland in Multnomah County and the state of Oregon
Location of Portland in Multnomah County and the state of Oregon
Portland, Oregon is located in the US
Portland, Oregon
Portland, Oregon
Location in the United States
Coordinates: 45°31′12″N 122°40′55″W / 45°31′12″N 122°40′55″W / 45.52000; -122.68194
Area codes503 and 971
FIPS code41-59000
GNIS feature ID1136645[8]
WebsitePortlandOregon.gov

Portland is the largest city in the U.S. state of Oregon and the seat of Multnomah County. It is a major port in the Willamette Valley region of the Pacific Northwest, at the confluence of the Willamette and Columbia rivers. The city covers 145 square miles (380 square kilometers) and had an estimated population of 647,805 in 2017,[9] making it the 26th most populous city in the United States, and the second-most populous in the Pacific Northwest.[10] Approximately 2,424,955 people live in the Portland metropolitan statistical area (MSA), making it the 25th most populous MSA in the United States. Its Combined Statistical Area (CSA) ranks 18th with a population of 3,160,488. Roughly 60% of Oregon's population resides within the Portland metropolitan area.[a]

Named after Portland, Maine,[11] the Oregon settlement began to be populated in the 1830s near the end of the Oregon Trail. Its water access provided convenient transportation of goods, and the timber industry was a major force in the city's early economy. At the turn of the 20th century, the city had a reputation as one of the most dangerous port cities in the world, a hub for organized crime and racketeering. After the city's economy experienced an industrial boom during World War II, its hard-edged reputation began to dissipate. Beginning in the 1960s,[12] Portland became noted for its growing progressive political values, earning it a reputation as a bastion of counterculture.[13]

The city operates with a commission-based government guided by a mayor and four commissioners as well as Metro, the only directly elected metropolitan planning organization in the United States.[14] The city government is notable for its land-use planning and investment in public transportation.[15] Portland is frequently recognized as one of the world's most environmentally conscious cities because of its high walkability, large community of bicyclists, farm-to-table dining, expansive network of public transportation options, and over 10,000 acres (4,000 hectares) of public parks.[16] Its climate is marked by warm, dry summers and cool, rainy winters. This climate is ideal for growing roses, and Portland has been called the "City of Roses" for over a century.[17][18]

History

Pre-history and natives

During the prehistoric period, the land that would become Portland was flooded after the collapse of glacial dams from Lake Missoula, in what would later become Montana. These massive floods occurred during the last ice age and filled the Willamette Valley with 300 to 400 feet (91 to 122 m) of water.[19]

Before American pioneers began arriving in the 1800s, the land that eventually became Portland and surrounding Multnomah County was inhabited for many centuries by two bands of indigenous Chinook people— the Multnomah and the Clackamas peoples.[20] The Chinook people occupying the land which would become Portland were first documented by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark in 1805.[21] Before its European settlement, the Portland Basin of the lower Columbia River and Willamette River valleys had been one of the most densely populated regions on the Pacific Coast.[21]

Establishment

Portland waterfront in 1898
The White Eagle saloon (c. 1910), one of many in Portland that had reputed ties to illegal activities such as gambling rackets and prostitution[22]

Large numbers of pioneer settlers began arriving in the Willamette Valley in the 1830s via the Oregon Trail, though life was originally centered in nearby Oregon City. In the early 1840s a new settlement emerged ten miles from the mouth of the Willamette River,[23] roughly halfway between Oregon City and Fort Vancouver. This community was initially referred to as "Stumptown" and "The Clearing" because of the many trees cut down to allow for its growth.[24] In 1843 William Overton saw potential in the new settlement but lacked the funds to file an official land claim. For 25 cents Overton agreed to share half of the 640-acre (2.6 km2) site with Asa Lovejoy of Boston.[25]

1890 map of Portland

In 1845 Overton sold his remaining half of the claim to Francis W. Pettygrove of Portland, Maine. Both Pettygrove and Lovejoy wished to rename "The Clearing" after their respective hometowns (Lovejoy's being Boston, and Pettygrove's, Portland). This controversy was settled with a coin toss which Pettygrove won in a series of two out of three tosses, thereby providing Portland with its namesake.[1] The coin used for this decision, now known as the Portland Penny, is on display in the headquarters of the Oregon Historical Society. At the time of its incorporation on February 8, 1851, Portland had over 800 inhabitants,[26] a steam sawmill, a log cabin hotel, and a newspaper, the Weekly Oregonian. A major fire swept through downtown in August 1873, destroying twenty blocks on the west side of the Willamette along Yamhill and Morrison Streets, and causing $1.3 million in damage.[27] By 1879, the population had grown to 17,500 and by 1890 it had grown to 46,385.[28] In 1888, the city built the first steel bridge built on the West Coast.[29]

Portland's access to the Pacific Ocean via the Willamette and the Columbia rivers, as well as its easy access to the agricultural Tualatin Valley via the "Great Plank Road" (the route of current-day U.S. Route 26), provided the pioneer city with an advantage over other nearby ports, and it grew very quickly.[30] Portland remained the major port in the Pacific Northwest for much of the 19th century, until the 1890s, when Seattle's deepwater harbor was connected to the rest of the mainland by rail, affording an inland route without the treacherous navigation of the Columbia River. The lumber industry also became a prominent economic presence, due to the area's large population of Douglas Firs, Western Hemlocks, Red Cedars, and Big Leaf Maple trees.[21]

Portland developed a reputation early in its history as a hard-edged and gritty port town.[31] Some historians have described the city's early establishment as being a "scion of New England; an ends-of-the-earth home for the exiled spawn of the eastern established elite."[32] In 1889, The Oregonian called Portland "the most filthy city in the Northern States", due to the unsanitary sewers and gutters,[33] and, at the turn of the 20th century, it was considered one of the most dangerous port cities in the world.[34] The city housed a large number of saloons, bordellos, gambling dens, and boardinghouses which were populated with miners after the California Gold Rush, as well as the multitude of sailors passing through the port.[31] By the early 20th century, the city had lost its reputation as a "sober frontier city" and garnered a reputation for being violent and dangerous.[31][35]

Postwar development

Between 1900 and 1930, the city's population tripled from nearly 100,000 to 301,815.[36] During World War II, it housed an "assembly center" from which up to 3,676 people of Japanese descent were dispatched to internment camps in the heartland. The Pacific International Livestock Exposition operated from May through September 10, 1942 processing people from the city, northern Oregon, and central Washington.[37]

At the same time, Portland became a notorious hub for underground criminal activity and organized crime between the 1940s and 1950s.[38] In 1957, LIFE Magazine published an article detailing the city's history of government corruption and crime, specifically its gambling rackets and illegal nightclubs.[38] The article, which focused on crime boss Jim Elkins, became the basis of a fictionalized film titled Portland Exposé (1957). In spite of the city's seedier undercurrent of criminal activity, Portland enjoyed an economic and industrial surge during World War II. Ship builder Henry J. Kaiser had been awarded contracts to build Liberty ships and aircraft carrier escorts, and chose sites in Portland and Vancouver, Washington, for work yards.[39] During this time, Portland's population rose by over 150,000, largely attributed to recruited laborers.[39]

During the 1960s, an influx of hippie subculture began to take root in the city in the wake of San Francisco's burgeoning countercultural scene.[12] The city's Crystal Ballroom became a hub for the city's psychedelic culture, while food cooperatives and listener-funded media and radio stations were established.[40] A large social activist presence evolved during this time as well, specifically concerning Native American rights, environmentalist causes, and gay rights.[40] By the 1970s, Portland had well established itself as a progressive city, and experienced an economic boom for the majority of the decade; however, the slowing of the housing market in 1979 caused demand for the city and state timber industries to drop significantly.[41]

1990s to present

Aerial view of Portland and its bridges across the Willamette River

In the 1990s, the technology industry began to emerge in Portland, specifically with the establishment of companies like Intel, which brought more than $10 billion in investments in 1995 alone.[42] After the year 2000, Portland experienced significant growth, with a population rise of over 90,000 between the years 2000 and 2014.[43] The city's increased presence within the cultural lexicon has established it as a popular city for young people, and it was second only to Louisville, Kentucky as one of the cities to attract and retain the highest number of college-educated people in the United States.[44] Between 2001 and 2012, Portland's gross domestic product per person grew fifty percent, more than any other city in the country.[44]

The city has acquired a diverse range of nicknames throughout its history, though it is most often called "Rose City" or "The City of Roses",[45] the latter of which has been its unofficial nickname since 1888 and its official nickname since 2003.[46] Another widely used nickname by local residents in everyday speech is "PDX", which is also the airport code for Portland International Airport. Other nicknames include Bridgetown,[47] Stumptown,[48] Rip City,[49] Soccer City,[50][51][52] P-Town,[46][53] Portlandia, and the more antiquated Little Beirut.[54]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Portland, Oregon
azərbaycanca: Portlend (Oreqon)
bamanankan: Portland (Oregon)
Bân-lâm-gú: Portland (Oregon)
беларуская: Портленд (Арэгон)
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Портлэнд (Арэгон)
български: Портланд
bosanski: Portland
català: Portland
čeština: Portland
dansk: Portland
Diné bizaad: Tótaʼ Beʼekʼid
eesti: Portland
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Portland
español: Portland
føroyskt: Portland
Gàidhlig: Portland, Oregon
Bahasa Indonesia: Portland, Oregon
interlingua: Portland (Oregon)
Interlingue: Portland (Oregon)
italiano: Portland
Kapampangan: Portland, Oregon
ქართული: პორტლენდი
Kiswahili: Portland, Oregon
Kreyòl ayisyen: Portland, Oregon
кырык мары: Портленд (Орегон)
لۊری شومالی: پورتلند، اورگن
lietuvių: Portlandas
Lingua Franca Nova: Portland, Oregon
македонски: Портланд (Орегон)
მარგალური: პორტლენდი
Bahasa Melayu: Portland, Oregon
Nederlands: Portland (Oregon)
norsk: Portland
norsk nynorsk: Portland i Oregon
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Portland (Oregon)
Piemontèis: Portland
português: Portland (Oregon)
संस्कृतम्: पोर्टलण्ड्
sardu: Portland
Simple English: Portland, Oregon
slovenčina: Portland (Oregon)
slovenščina: Portland, Oregon
Soomaaliga: Bortland, Oregon
српски / srpski: Портланд (Орегон)
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Portland, Oregon
Taqbaylit: Portland
українська: Портленд (Орегон)
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Portland, Orégon
vepsän kel’: Portlend (Oregon)
Tiếng Việt: Portland, Oregon
Yorùbá: Portland
粵語: 砵崙