The History Portal

Herodotus (c. 484 BC – c. 425 BC), often considered the "father of history"

History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning 'inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation') is the past as it is described in written documents, and the study thereof. Events occurring before written records are considered prehistory. "History" is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the memory, discovery, collection, organization, presentation, and interpretation of information about these events. Scholars who write about history are called historians.

History also includes the academic discipline which uses a narrative to examine and analyse a sequence of past events, and objectively determine the patterns of cause and effect that determine them. Historians sometimes debate the nature of history and its usefulness by discussing the study of the discipline as an end in itself and as a way of providing "perspective" on the problems of the present.

Stories common to a particular culture, but not supported by external sources (such as the tales surrounding King Arthur), are usually classified as cultural heritage or legends, because they do not show the "disinterested investigation" required of the discipline of history. Herodotus, a 5th-century BC Greek historian is often considered within the Western tradition to be the "father of history", or by some the "father of lies", and, along with his contemporary Thucydides, helped form the foundations for the modern study of human history. Their works continue to be read today, and the gap between the culture-focused Herodotus and the military-focused Thucydides remains a point of contention or approach in modern historical writing. In East Asia, a state chronicle, the Spring and Autumn Annals, was known to be compiled from as early as 722 BC although only 2nd-century BC texts have survived.

Ancient influences have helped spawn variant interpretations of the nature of history which have evolved over the centuries and continue to change today. The modern study of history is wide-ranging, and includes the study of specific regions and the study of certain topical or thematical elements of historical investigation. Often history is taught as part of primary and secondary education, and the academic study of history is a major discipline in university studies.

Selected article

Brazilian battleship Minas Geraes firing a broadside.jpg
A South American dreadnought race involving Argentina, Brazil, and Chile began when the Brazilian government announced its intention to purchase three dreadnoughts—powerful battleships whose capabilities far outstripped older vessels in the world's navies—in 1907. Two ships of the Minas Geraes class were laid down immediately with a third to follow. The Argentine and Chilean governments immediately canceled a naval-limiting pact between them, and both ordered two dreadnoughts (the Rivadavia and Almirante Latorre classes, respectively). Meanwhile, Brazil's third dreadnought was canceled in favor of an even larger ship, but the ship was laid down and ripped up several times after repeated major alterations to the design. When the Brazilian government finally settled on a design, they realized it would be outclassed by the Chilean dreadnoughts' larger armament, so they sold the partly-completed ship to the Ottoman Empire and attempted to acquire a more powerful vessel. By this time the First World War had broken out in Europe, and many shipbuilders suspended work on dreadnoughts for foreign countries, halting the Brazilian plans. Argentina's two dreadnoughts were delivered, as the United States remained neutral in the opening years of the war, but Chile's two dreadnoughts were purchased by the United Kingdom. In the years between the First and Second World War, many naval expansion plans, some involving dreadnought purchases, were proposed. While most never came to fruition, in April 1920 the Chilean government reacquired one of the dreadnoughts taken over by the United Kingdom. No other dreadnoughts were purchased by a South American nation, and all were sold for scrap in the 1950s.

Selected biography

Blackbeard (c. 1726 engraving used to illustrate Johnson's General History)
Edward Teach (c. 1680 – 22 November 1718), better known as Blackbeard, was a notorious English pirate who operated around the West Indies and the eastern coast of the American colonies. Although little is known about his early life, he was probably born in Bristol, England. He may have been a sailor on privateer ships during Queen Anne's War before settling on the Caribbean island of New Providence, a base for Captain Benjamin Hornigold, whose crew Teach joined sometime around 1716. Hornigold placed him in command of a sloop he had captured, and the two engaged in numerous acts of piracy. Their numbers were boosted by the addition to their fleet of two more ships, one of which was commanded by Stede Bonnet, but towards the end of 1717 Hornigold retired from piracy, taking two vessels with him.

Teach captured a French merchant vessel, renamed it Queen Anne's Revenge, and equipped it with 40 guns. He became a renowned pirate, his cognomen derived from his thick black beard and fearsome appearance; he was reported to have tied lit fuses under his hat to frighten his enemies. He formed an alliance of pirates and blockaded the port of Charleston, South Carolina. After successfully ransoming its inhabitants, he ran Queen Anne's Revenge aground on a sandbar near Beaufort, North Carolina. He parted company with Bonnet, settling in Bath Town, where he accepted a royal pardon. But he was soon back at sea and attracted the attention of Alexander Spotswood, the Governor of Virginia. Spotswood arranged for a party of soldiers and sailors to try to capture the pirate, which they did on 22 November 1718. During a ferocious battle, Teach and several of his crew were killed by a small force of sailors led by Lieutenant Robert Maynard.

Did you know...

Mimoyecques2.jpg

Selected image

Shiva as the Lord of Dance LACMA.jpg

A Chola dynasty sculpture depicting Shiva. In Hinduism, Shiva is the deity of destruction and one of the most important gods; in this sculpture he is dancing as Nataraja, the divine dancer who unravels the world in preparation for it being remade by Brahma.

On this day

July 22: Feast day of Saint Mary Magdalene (Christianity); Pi Approximation Day

Rock inscribed by Alexander Mackenzie
Rock inscribed by Alexander Mackenzie

Sobhuza II (b. 1899) · James Whitcomb Riley (d. 1916) · Harold Larwood (d. 1995)

More anniversaries:

Selected quote

What transforms this world is — knowledge. Do you see what I mean? Nothing else can change anything in this world.

— Yukio Mishima, Japanese author

Selected portal

Schlacht am Weißen Berg C-K 063.jpg
War

"War is not a pathology that, with proper hygiene and treatment, can be wholly prevented. War is a natural condition of the State, which was organized in order to be an effective instrument of violence on behalf of society. Wars are like deaths, which, while they can be postponed, will come when they will come and cannot be finally avoided."
Philip Bobbitt

Things you can do

NaodW29-nowiki286369b71e7b327900000001
   Here are some Open Tasks :

WikiProjects

Topics

Categories

C Puzzle.png

HistoryBy periodBy regionBy topicBy ethnic groupHistoriographyArchaeologyBooksMapsImagesMagazinesOrganizationsFictionalMuseumsPseudohistoryStubsTimelinesChronologyPeople

Wikipedia historians

Related portals

Associated Wikimedia

The following Wikimedia Foundation sister projects provide more on this subject:

Commons
Media

Wikinews 
News

Wikiquote 
Quotations

Wikisource 
Texts

Wikiversity
Learning resources

Wiktionary 
Definitions

Wikidata 
Database

Other Languages
адыгабзэ: Портал:Тарихъ
Alemannisch: Portal:Gschicht
አማርኛ: በር:ታሪክ
Ænglisc: Ingang:Stǣr
Bân-lâm-gú: Portal:Le̍k-sú
башҡортса: Портал:Тарих
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Партал:Гісторыя
български: Портал:История
Boarisch: Portal:Gschicht
brezhoneg: Porched:Istor
čeština: Portál:Historie
Ελληνικά: Πύλη:Ιστορία
español: Portal:Historia
français: Portail:Histoire
Gagauz: Portal:Tarih
Gĩkũyũ: Portal:History
한국어: 포털:역사
hrvatski: Portal:Povijest
Bahasa Indonesia: Portal:Sejarah
italiano: Portale:Storia
Kapampangan: Portal:Amlat
қазақша: Портал:Тарих
Кыргызча: Портал:Тарых
Lëtzebuergesch: Portal:Geschicht
македонски: Портал:Историја
مازِرونی: پورتال:تاریخ
Bahasa Melayu: Portal:Sejarah
မြန်မာဘာသာ: Portal:သမိုင်း
日本語: Portal:歴史
Napulitano: Purtale:Storia
нохчийн: Ков:Истори
norsk nynorsk: Tema:Historie
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Portal:Tarix
پنجابی: بوآ:تریخ
Plattdüütsch: Portal:Historie
português: Portal:História
română: Portal:Istorie
slovenčina: Portál:História
slovenščina: Portal:Zgodovina
Soomaaliga: Portal:Taariikh
српски / srpski: Портал:Историја
ၽႃႇသႃႇတႆး : ၵိူၼ်ႇတူ:History
татарча/tatarça: Портал:Тарих
Türkçe: Portal:Tarih
українська: Портал:Історія
Tiếng Việt: Chủ đề:Lịch sử
文言: 門:史
Xitsonga: Portal:History
Zazaki: Portal:Tarix