The History Portal
History is the discovery, collection, organization, analysis, and presentation of information about past events. History can also mean a continuous, typically chronological record of important or public events or of a particular trend or institution. Scholars who write about history are called
historians. It is a field of
knowledge which uses a
narrative to examine and analyse the sequence of events, and it sometimes attempts to objectively investigate the patterns of cause and effect that determine events. Historians debate the nature of history and its usefulness. This includes discussing the study of the discipline as an end in itself and as a way of providing "perspective" on the problems of the present. The stories common to a particular
culture but not supported by external sources (such as the legends surrounding
King Arthur) are usually classified as
cultural heritage rather than as the "disinterested investigation" needed by the discipline of history. Events of the past prior to written record are considered
Amongst scholars, fifth century BC
Herodotus is considered to be the "father of history"; the methods of Herodotus along with his contemporary
Thucydides form the foundations for the modern study of history. Their influence (along with other historical traditions in other parts of their world) has spawned many different interpretations of the nature of history which has developed over the centuries and are continuing to change. The modern study of history has many different fields, including those that focus on certain regions and those that focus on certain topical or thematic elements of historical investigation. Often, history is taught as part of primary and secondary education, and the academic study of history is a major discipline in university studies.
Mormon handcart pioneers
were participants in the westward migration of members of
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
to transport their supplies and belongings while walking from
. The Mormon handcart movement began in 1856 and lasted until 1860.
Motivated to join their fellow Church members in avoiding persecution but lacking funds for full
ox or horse teams, nearly 3,000
Mormon pioneers from
Scandinavia made the journey to Utah in 10 handcart companies. For two of them, the Willie and Martin handcart companies, the trek led to disaster after they started their journey dangerously late and were caught by heavy snow and bitterly cold temperatures in the
Rocky Mountains of central
Wyoming. Despite a dramatic rescue effort, more than 210 of the 980 pioneers in the two companies died along the way.
Although fewer than ten percent of the 1847–68
Latter-day Saint emigrants made the journey west using handcarts, the handcart pioneers have become an important symbol in LDS culture, representing the faithfulness, courage, determination, and sacrifice of the pioneer generation. The handcart treks were a familiar theme in 19th century
Mormon folk music and handcart pioneers continue to be recognized and honored in events such as
Pioneer Day, Church pageants, and similar commemorations.
, "surrounded by glory"; c. 495 – 429 BC) was a prominent and influential
, orator, and general of
during the city's
—specifically, the time between the
wars. He was descended, through his mother, from the powerful and historically influential
Pericles had such a profound influence on Athenian society that
Thucydides, his contemporary historian, acclaimed him as "the first citizen of Athens". Pericles turned the
Delian League into an Athenian empire and led his countrymen during the first two years of the Peloponnesian War. The period during which he led Athens, roughly from 461 to 429 BC, is sometimes known as the "
Age of Pericles", though the period thus denoted can include times as early as the
Persian Wars, or as late as the next century.
Pericles promoted the arts and literature; this was a chief reason Athens holds the reputation of being the educational and cultural centre of the
ancient Greek world. He started an ambitious project that generated most of the surviving structures on the
Acropolis (including the
Parthenon). This project beautified the city, exhibited its glory, and gave work to the people. Furthermore, Pericles fostered
Athenian democracy to such an extent that critics call him a
Did you know...
Trinity nuclear test was the first nuclear detonation in the world. Conducted by the
United States Army on July 16, 1945, the successful test would set the stage for the coming
Atomic Age. This image, captured by
Berlyn Brixner, shows the fireball that developed 0.016 seconds after ignition; the explosive had a yield of 20 kilotons of dynamite.
On this day
Fortune, which has a great deal of power in other matters but especially in war, can bring about great changes in a situation through very slight forces.
"Archaeology is the peeping Tom of the sciences. It is the sandbox of men who care not where they are going; they merely want to know where everyone else has been. "
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