Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism and assimilated by the organism's cells to provide energy, maintain life, or stimulate growth.
Historically, humans secured food through two methods: hunting and gathering and agriculture. Today, the majority of the food energy required by the ever increasing population of the world is supplied by the food industry.
|The cuisine of the Thirteen Colonies was derived from familiar traditions from the colonist's home countries, mainly England. Many agricultural items came to the New World through trade with England and the West Indies. Certain familiar items grew better in the New World than others, and this led to a dependence on imports which drove the daily lives of the colonists. For example, the cost of items such as imported wool gave the colonists an incentive to raise sheep, not only for wool to replace imports, but for access to the meat of the older animals as mutton. However, the colonial diet was increasingly supplemented by meat and plant foods indigenous to the New World. In the years leading up to 1776, a number of events led to a drastic change in the diet of the American colonists. Taxes and tariffs levied by England increased the costs of goods and caused colonists to hold a grudge toward the British monarchy and British imports. Import tariffs and taxes, and other issues, eventually led to the American Revolution. As they could no longer depend on British and West Indies imports, agricultural practices of the colonists began to focus on becoming completely self sufficient.|
|James Beard |
B. May 5, 1903 – d. January 21, 1985
James Andrew Beard was an American chef and food writer. James Beard is recognized by many as the father of American gastronomy. Throughout his life, he pursued and advocated the highest standards, and served as a mentor to emerging talents in the field of the culinary arts.
He was born in Portland, Oregon, USA, to Elizabeth and John Beard. His mother operated a boarding house and his father worked at the city's Customs House. The family vacationed on the Pacific coast in Gearhart, Oregon. Here Beard was exposed to the unique local foods of the Pacific Northwest, including seafood and wild berries.
He trained initially as a singer and actor, and moved to New York City in 1937. Not having much luck in the theater, he and his friend, Bill Rhodes, capitalized on the cocktail party craze by opening a catering company, "Hors D'Oeuvre, Inc.", which led the publication of Beard's first cookbook, Hors D'Oeuvre and Canapes, a compilation of his catering recipes. Rationing difficulties in World War II brought his catering business to a halt. In 1946, he appeared on an early televised cooking show, I Love to Eat, on NBC, and thus began his rise as an eminent American food authority.
Over the next forty years, James Beard operated a cooking school out of his apartment in New York, wrote dozens of books on cooking and food, and hundreds of articles on food for many different magazines.
Flaky pie crust
, this recipe makes enough dough for one 9 inch covered pie. If your pie only requires a bottom crust, use half this recipe. Note: for best results, make the full recipe. If only a single crust is required, make the full recipe and freeze half for later.
In contrast to bread, pie crust and other pastries should be made in a way that minimizes the development of gluten. Once the water has been added, the dough should be worked as little as possible, to minimize toughness in the finished crust.
is a genus
of about 150 species
in the sunflower family (Asteraceae
), native to subtropical
and tropical South America
and Central America
. The species Stevia rebaudiana
Bertoni, commonly known as sweetleaf
, sweet leaf
, or simply stevia
, is widely grown for its sweet leaves. As a sugar substitute
, stevia's taste has a slower onset and longer duration than that of sugar
, although some of its extracts may have a bitter or licorice
at high concentrations.
With its extracts having up to 300 times the sweetness of sugar, stevia has garnered attention with the rise in demand for low-carbohydrate, low-sugar food alternatives. Stevia also has shown promise in medical research for treating such conditions as obesity and high blood pressure.
Stevia has a negligible effect on blood glucose, even enhancing glucose tolerance; However, health and political controversies have limited stevia's availability in many countries; for example, the United States banned it in the early 1990s unless labeled as a supplement. Stevia is widely used as a sweetener in Japan, and it is now available in the US and Canada as a dietary supplement, although not as a food additive. Rebiana is the trade name for a stevia-derived sweetener being developed jointly by The Coca-Cola Company and Cargill with the intent of marketing in several countries and gaining regulatory approval in the US and EU. Truvia is Cargill's consumer brand of Rebiana-based sweetener.
Did you know...
Two pears used in agricultural research.
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The following are categories relating to food.Select [►] to view subcategories
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The following are topics relating to food
|Beverages||Alcoholic beverage, Beer, Cocktail, Coffee, Distilled beverage, Energy drink, Espresso, Flaming beverage, Foodshake, Juice, Korean beverages, Liqueur, Milk, Milkshake, Non-alcoholic beverage, Slush, Smoothie, Soft drink, Sparkling water, Sports drink, Tea, Water, Wine|
|Cooking||Baking, Barbecuing, Blanching, Baking Blind, Boiling, Braising, Broiling, Chefs, Coddling, Cookbooks, Cooking school, Cooking show, Cookware and bakeware, Cuisine, Deep frying, Double steaming, Food and cooking hygiene, Food processor, Food writing, Frying, Grilling, Hot salt frying, Hot sand frying, Infusion, Kitchen, Cooking utensils, Macerating, Marinating, Microwaving, Pan frying, Poaching, Pressure cooking, Pressure frying, Recipe, Restaurant, Roasting, Rotisserie, Sautéing, Searing, Simmering, Smoking, Steaming, Steeping, Stewing, Stir frying, Vacuum flask cooking|
|Cooking schools||Art Institute of Fort Lauderdale, Cambridge School of Culinary Arts, Culinary Institute of America, French Culinary Institute, Hattori Nutrition College, International Culinary Center, Johnson & Wales University, Le Cordon Bleu, Louisiana Culinary Institute, New England Culinary Institute, , State University of New York at Delhi|
|Dining||Buffet, Catering, Drinkware, Food festival, Gourmand, Gourmet, Picnic, Potluck, Restaurant, Salad bar, Service à la française, Service à la russe, Table d'hôte, Thanksgiving dinner, Vegan, Vegetarian, Waiter, Wine tasting|
|Foods||Baby food, Beans, Beef, Breads, Burger, Breakfast cereals, Cereal, Cheeses, Comfort food, Condiments, Confections, Convenience food, Cuisine, Dairy products, Delicacies, Desserts, Diet food, Dried foods, Eggs, Fast foods, Finger food, Fish, Flavoring, Food additive, Food supplements, Frozen food, Fruits, Functional food, Genetically modified food, Herbs, Hors d'œuvres, Hot dogs, Ingredients, Junk food, Legumes, Local food, Meats, Noodles, Novel food, Nuts, Organic foods, Pastas, Pastries, Poultry, Pork, Produce, Puddings, Salads, Sandwiches, Sauces, Seafood, Seeds, Side dishes, Slow foods, Soul food, Snack foods, Soups, Spices, Spreads, Staple food, Stews, Street food, Sweets, Taboo food and drink, Vegetables|
|Food industry||Agriculture, Bakery, Dairy, Fair trade, Farmers' market, Farming, Fishing industry, Food additive, Food bank, Food co-op, Food court, Food distribution, Food engineering, Food processing, Food Salvage, Food science, Foodservice distributor, Grocery store, Health food store, Institute of Food Technologists, Meat packing industry, Organic farming, Restaurant, Software, Supermarket, Sustainable agriculture|
|Food organizations||American Culinary Federation, American Institute of Baking, American Society for Enology and Viticulture, Chinese American Food Society, European Food Information Resource Network, Food and Agriculture Organization, Institute of Food Science and Technology, Institute of Food Technologists, International Association of Culinary Professionals, International Life Sciences Institute, International Union of Food Science and Technology, James Beard Foundation, World Association of Chefs Societies|
|Food politics||Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety, European Food Safety Authority, Food and agricultural policy, Food and Agriculture Organization, Food and Drugs Act, Food and Drug Administration, Food and Nutrition Service, Food crises, Food labelling Regulations, Food Safety and Inspection Service, Food security, Food Stamp Program, Food Standards Agency (UK), Natural food movement, World Food Council, World Food Prize, World Food Programme|
|Food preservation||Canning, Dried foods, Fermentation, Freeze drying, Food preservatives, Irradiation, Pasteurization, Pickling, Preservative, Snap freezing, Vacuum evaporation|
|Food science||Appetite, Aristology, Biosafety, Cooking, Danger zone, Digestion, Famine, Fermentation, Flavor, Food allergy, Foodborne illness, Food coloring, Food composition, Food chemistry, Food craving, Food faddism, Food engineering, Food preservation, Food quality, Food safety, Food storage, Food technology, Gastronomy, Gustatory system, Harvesting, Product development, Sensory analysis, Shelf-life, Slaughtering, Taste, Timeline of agriculture and food technology|
|Meals||Breakfast, Second breakfast, Elevenses, Brunch, Tiffin, Lunch, Tea, Dinner, Supper, Dessert, Snack|
|Courses of a meal||Amuse bouche, Bread, Cheese, Coffee, Dessert, Entrée, Entremet, Hors d'œuvre, Main course, Nuts, Salad, Soup|
|Nutrition||Chronic toxicity, Dietary supplements, Diet, Dieting, Diets, Eating disorder, Food allergy, Food energy, Food groups, Food guide pyramid, Food pyramid, Food sensitivity, Healthy eating, Malnutrition, Nootropic, Nutraceutical, Nutrient, Obesity, Protein, Protein combining, Yo-yo dieting|
|Occupations||Baker, Butcher, Chef, Personal chef, Farmer, Food stylist, Grocer, Waiter|
|Other||Food chain, Incompatible Food Triad|