## Population ecology |

**Population ecology** is a sub-field of ^{[1]} It is the study of how the

The development of population ecology owes much to

- fundamentals
- geometric populations
- r/k selection
- metapopulation
- history
- journals
- see also
- references
- further reading
- external links

Term | Definition |
---|---|

Species population |
All individuals of a species. |

Metapopulation |
A set of spatially disjunct populations, among which there is some immigration. |

Population |
A group of conspecific individuals that is demographically, genetically, or spatially disjunct from other groups of individuals. |

Aggregation |
A spatially clustered group of individuals. |

Deme |
A group of individuals more genetically similar to each other than to other individuals, usually with some degree of spatial isolation as well. |

Local population |
A group of individuals within an investigator-delimited area smaller than the geographic range of the species and often within a population (as defined above). A local population could be a disjunct population as well. |

Subpopulation |
An arbitrary spatially delimited subset of individuals from within a population (as defined above). |

The most fundamental law of population ecology is ^{[3]}

A population will grow (or decline) exponentially as long as the environment experienced by all individuals in the population remains constant.^{[3]}^{:18}

This principle in population ecology provides the basis for formulating predictive theories and tests that follow:

Simplified population models usually start with four key variables (four **demographic processes**) including death, birth, immigration, and emigration. Mathematical models used to calculate changes in population demographics and evolution hold the assumption (or ^{[4]} For example, in a closed system where immigration and emigration does not take place, the rate of change in the number of individuals in a population can be described as:

where *N* is the total number of individuals in the population, *B* is the **raw** number of births, *D* is the **raw** number of deaths, *b* and *d* are the **per capita** rates of birth and death respectively, and *r* is the **per capita** average number of surviving offspring each individual has. This formula can be read as the rate of change in the population (*dN/dT*) is equal to births minus deaths (B - D).^{[3]}^{[5]}

Using these techniques, Malthus' population principle of growth was later transformed into a mathematical model known as the

where *N* is the biomass density, *a* is the maximum per-capita rate of change, and *K* is the *dN/dT*) is equal to growth (*aN*) that is limited by carrying capacity *(1-N/K)*. From these basic mathematical principles the discipline of population ecology expands into a field of investigation that queries the ^{[5]}^{[6]}

Other Languages

العربية: علم البيئة التجمعي

беларуская: Дэмэкалогія

bosanski: Populacijska ekologija

Deutsch: Populationsökologie

eesti: Demökoloogia

español: Ecología de poblaciones

Esperanto: Populaciekologio

فارسی: بومشناسی جمعیتی

français: Démécologie

Հայերեն: Դեմէկոլոգիա

Bahasa Indonesia: Ekologi populasi

italiano: Ecologia della popolazione

қазақша: Аутоэкология

Кыргызча: Демэкология

日本語: 個体群生態学

norsk: Populasjonsøkologi

polski: Ekologia populacyjna

português: Ecologia de populações

русский: Демэкология

slovenščina: Ekologija populacije

suomi: Populaatioekologia

українська: Демекологія

Tiếng Việt: Sinh thái học quần thể

中文: 种群生态学