Pope Pius X

Pope Saint

Pius X
Bishop of Rome
Pope Pius X (Retouched).jpg
Pius in 1910
Papacy began4 August 1903
Papacy ended20 August 1914
PredecessorLeo XIII
SuccessorBenedict XV
Ordination18 September 1858
by Giovanni Antonio Farina
Consecration16 November 1884
by Lucido Maria Parocchi
Created cardinal12 June 1893
by Leo XIII
Personal details
Birth nameGiuseppe Melchiorre Sarto
Born(1835-06-02)2 June 1835
Riese, Treviso, Lombardy-Venetia, Austrian Empire
Died20 August 1914(1914-08-20) (aged 79)
Apostolic Palace, Rome, Kingdom of Italy
Previous post
MottoInstaurare Omnia in Christo (Restore all things in Christ)[1]
SignaturePius X's signature
Coat of armsPius X's coat of arms
Feast day21 August
3 September (General Roman Calendar 1955–1969)
Venerated inCatholic Church
Society of Saint Pius X
Beatified3 June 1951
Saint Peter's Basilica, Vatican City
by Pius XII
Canonized29 May 1954
Saint Peter's Basilica, Vatican City
by Pius XII
PatronageSociety of Saint Pius X[2]
Archdiocese of Atlanta, Georgia; Diocese of Des Moines, Iowa; first communicants; Diocese of Great Falls-Billings, Montana; Archdiocese of Kottayam, India; Esperantists;[3] pilgrims; Santa Luċija, Malta; Diocese of Springfield-Cape Girardeau, Missouri; Archdiocese of Zamboanga, Philippines; emigrants from Treviso; Patriarchy of Venice; Catechists;[4]
St. Pius X Seminary (Dubuque, Iowa)
Other popes named Pius
Ordination history of
Pope Pius X
Diaconal ordination
Date27 February 1858
Priestly ordination
Ordained byGiovanni Antonio Farina
Date18 September 1858
Episcopal consecration
Principal consecratorLucido Maria Parocchi
Co-consecratorsPietro Rota
Giovanni Maria Berengo
Date16 November 1884
Elevated byLeo XIII
Date13 June 1893
Episcopal succession
Bishops consecrated by Pope Pius X as principal consecrator
Francesco Cherubin20 August 1899
Giacomo Maria Radini-Tedeschi29 January 1905
Pierre Dadolle25 February 1906
Marie-Joseph Ollivier25 February 1906
Benedict XV22 December 1907
Adam Stefan Sapieha17 December 1911
Pie Armand Pierre Sabadel17 December 1911

Pope Pius X (Italian: Pio X), born Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto[a] (Italian: [dʒuˈzɛppe melˈkjɔrre ˈsarto]; 2 June 1835 – 20 August 1914), was head of the Catholic Church from August 1903 to his death in 1914. Pius X is known for vigorously opposing modernist interpretations of Catholic doctrine, promoting liturgical reforms and orthodox theology. He directed the production of the 1917 Code of Canon Law, the first comprehensive and systemic work of its kind.

Pius X was devoted to the Marian title of Our Lady of Confidence; while his papal encyclical Ad diem illum took on a sense of renewal that was reflected in the motto of his pontificate.[5] He advanced the Liturgical Movement as the only Pope to favor the use of the vernacular language in teaching catechesis, he encouraged the frequent reception of holy communion, and he lowered the age for First Communion, which became a lasting innovation of his papacy.[6] In addition, he strongly defended the Catholic religion against indifferentism and relativism.[7] Like his predecessors, he promoted Thomism as the principal philosophical method to be taught in Catholic institutions. As Roman Pontiff, he vehemently opposed modernism and various nineteenth-century philosophies, which he viewed as an import of secular errors incompatible with Catholic dogma.[8]

Pius X was known for his overall rigid demeanor and sense of personal poverty.[9] He frequently gave homily sermons in the pulpit every week, a rare practice at the time.[b] After the 1908 Messina earthquake he filled the Apostolic Palace with refugees, long before the Italian government acted.[9] He rejected any kind of favours for his family, to which his close relatives chose to remain in poverty living near Rome.[9][10] During his pontificate, many famed Marian images were granted a canonical coronation, namely the Our Lady of Aparecida, Our Lady of the Pillar, Our Lady of the Cape, Our Lady of Chiquinquira of Colombia, Our Lady of the Lake of Mexico, Our Lady of La Naval de Manila, Virgin of Help of Venezuela, Our Lady of Carmel of New York, and the Immaculate Conception within the Chapel of the Choir inside Saint Peter's Basilica were granted its prestigious honors.

After his death, a strong cult of devotion followed his reputation of piety and holiness. He was beatified in 1951 and was canonized on 29 May 1954.[10] The traditionalist Catholic priestly Society of Saint Pius X is named in his honor while a grand statue bearing his name stands within St. Peter's Basilica; and his birth town was renamed Riese Pio X after his death.

Early life and ministry

The Marian image of Our Lady of Confidence, for whom Pius X had a religious devotion. The Basilica of Saint John Lateran.

Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto was born in Riese, Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia, Austrian Empire (now Italy, province of Treviso) in 1835. He was the second born of ten children of Giovanni Battista Sarto (1792–1852) and Margarita Sanson (1813–1894). He was baptised 3 June 1835. Giuseppe's childhood was one of poverty, being the son of the village postman. Though poor, his parents valued education, and Giuseppe walked 3.75 miles (6.04 km) to school each day.

Giuseppe had three brothers and six sisters: Giuseppe Sarto (born 1834; died after six days), Angelo Sarto (1837–1916), Teresa Parolin-Sarto (1839–1920), Rosa Sarto (1841–1913), Antonia Dei Bei-Sarto (1843–1917), Maria Sarto (1846–1930), Lucia Boschin-Sarto (1848–1924), Anna Sarto (1850–1926), Pietro Sarto (born 1852; died after six months).[11] He rejected any kind of favours for his family; his brother remained a postal clerk, his favourite nephew stayed on as village priest, and his three single sisters lived together close to poverty in Rome, in the same way as other people of the same humble background lived.

At a young age, Giuseppe studied Latin with his village priest, and went on to study at the gymnasium of Castelfranco Veneto. "In 1850 he received the tonsure from the Bishop of Treviso, and was given a scholarship [from] the Diocese of Treviso" to attend the Seminary of Padua, "where he finished his classical, philosophical, and theological studies with distinction".[12]

A young Giuseppe Sarto

On 18 September 1858, Sarto was ordained a priest, and became chaplain at Tombolo. While there, Sarto expanded his knowledge of theology, studying both Thomas Aquinas and canon law, while carrying out most of the functions of the parish pastor, who was quite ill. In 1867, he was named archpriest of Salzano. Here he restored the church and expanded the hospital, the funds coming from his own begging, wealth and labour. He became popular with the people when he worked to assist the sick during the cholera plague that swept into northern Italy in the early 1870s. He was named a canon of the cathedral and chancellor of the Diocese of Treviso, also holding offices such as spiritual director and rector of the Treviso seminary, and examiner of the clergy. As chancellor he made it possible for public school students to receive religious instruction. As a priest and later bishop, he often struggled over solving problems of bringing religious instruction to rural and urban youth who did not have the opportunity to attend Catholic schools.

In 1878, Bishop Federico Maria Zinelli[13] died, leaving the Bishopric of Treviso vacant. Following Zinelli's death, the canons of cathedral chapters (of whom Sarto was one) inherited the episcopal jurisdiction as a corporate body, and were chiefly responsible for the election of a vicar-capitular who would take over the responsibilities of Treviso until a new bishop was named. In 1879, Sarto was elected to the position, in which he served from December of that year to June 1880.

After 1880, Sarto taught dogmatic theology and moral theology at the seminary in Treviso. On 10 November 1884, he was appointed bishop of Mantua by Leo XIII. He was consecrated six days later in Rome in the church of Sant'Apollinare alle Terme Neroniane-Alessandrine, Rome, by Cardinal Lucido Parocchi, assisted by Pietro Rota, and by Giovanni Maria Berengo. He was appointed to the honorary position of assistant at the pontifical throne on 19 June 1891. Sarto required papal dispensation from Pope Leo XIII before episcopal consecration as he lacked a doctorate,[14] making him the last Pope without a doctorate before Pope Francis.

Cardinal and patriarch

Photo as Cardinal Giuseppe Sarto

Pope Leo XIII made him a cardinal in an open consistory on 12 June 1893. He was created and proclaimed as Cardinal-Priest of San Bernardo alle Terme. Three days after this, Sarto was privately named Patriarch of Venice. His name became public two days later. This caused difficulty, however, as the government of the reunified Italy claimed the right to nominate the patriarch based on its previous alleged exercise by the Emperor of Austria. The poor relations between the Roman Curia and the Italian civil government since the annexation of the Papal States in 1870 placed additional strain on the appointment. The number of vacant sees soon grew to 30. Sarto was finally permitted to assume the position of patriarch in 1894.

As cardinal-patriarch, Sarto avoided political involvement, allocating his time for social works and strengthening parochial banks. However, in his first pastoral letter to the Venetians, Sarto argued that in matters pertaining to the pope, "There should be no questions, no subtleties, no opposing of personal rights to his rights, but only obedience."

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Pous Pius X
العربية: بيوس العاشر
aragonés: Pío X
Aymar aru: Piyu X
azərbaycanca: X Piy
Bân-lâm-gú: Kàu-hông Pius 10-sè
беларуская: Пій X (Папа Рымскі)
български: Пий X
Boarisch: Pius X.
brezhoneg: Pi X
català: Pius X
čeština: Pius X.
Cymraeg: Pab Pïws X
Deutsch: Pius X.
dolnoserbski: Pius X.
eesti: Pius X
Ελληνικά: Πάπας Πίος Ι΄
español: Pío X
Esperanto: Pio la 10-a
euskara: Pio X.a
فارسی: پیوس دهم
français: Pie X
furlan: Pape Piu X
Gaeilge: Pápa Pius X
Gàidhlig: Pàpa Pius X
galego: Pío X, papa
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Kau-fòng Pius 10-sṳ
hornjoserbsce: Pius X.
hrvatski: Pio X.
Ilokano: Papa Pio X
Bahasa Indonesia: Paus Pius X
italiano: Papa Pio X
Kapampangan: Papa Piu X
ქართული: პიუს X
kaszëbsczi: Papiéż Pius X
Kiswahili: Papa Pius X
Latina: Pius X
latviešu: Pijs X
lietuvių: Pijus X
lingála: Pápa Pie X
македонски: Папа Пиј X
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Gáu-huòng Pius 10-sié
Nederlands: Paus Pius X
norsk: Pius X
norsk nynorsk: Pave Pius X
occitan: Piu X
polski: Pius X
português: Papa Pio X
Runa Simi: Piyu X
русский: Пий X
shqip: Papa Piu X
sicilianu: Piu X
Simple English: Pope Pius X
slovenčina: Pius X.
slovenščina: Papež Pij X.
српски / srpski: Папа Пије X
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Pio X
suomi: Pius X
svenska: Pius X
Tagalog: Papa Pio X
татарча/tatarça: Пий X
Türkçe: X. Pius
українська: Пій X
vèneto: Papa Pio X
Tiếng Việt: Giáo hoàng Piô X
Winaray: Papa Pío X
吴语: 庇护十世
Yorùbá: Pópù Pius 10k
中文: 庇護十世