Pope Leo XIII


Bishop of Rome
Leo XIII..jpg
Leo XIII in c. 1898
Papacy began20 February 1878
Papacy ended20 July 1903
PredecessorPius IX
SuccessorPius X
Ordination31 December 1837
by Carlo Odescalchi
Consecration19 February 1843
by Luigi Lambruschini
Created cardinal19 December 1853
by Pius IX
Personal details
Birth nameVincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci
Born2 March 1810
Carpineto Romano, département of Rome, French Empire
Died20 July 1903(1903-07-20) (aged 93)
Apostolic Palace, Rome, Italy
Previous post
SignatureLeo XIII's signature
Coat of armsLeo XIII's coat of arms
Other popes named Leo
Papal styles of
Pope Leo XIII
Coat of arms of Pope Leo XIII.svg
Reference styleHis Holiness
Spoken styleYour Holiness
Religious styleHoly Father
Posthumous styleNone
Ordination history of
Pope Leo XIII
Priestly ordination
Ordained byCarlo Odescalchi
Date31 December 1837
Episcopal consecration
Principal consecratorLuigi Lambruschini
Co-consecratorsFabio Maria Asquini
Giuseppe Maria Castellani
Date19 February 1843
Elevated byPius IX
Date19 December 1853
Episcopal succession
Bishops consecrated by Pope Leo XIII as principal consecrator
Antonio Briganti19 November 1871
Carmelo Pascucci19 November 1871
Carlo Laurenzi24 June 1877
Edoardo Borromeo19 May 1878
Francesco Latoni1 June 1879
Jean Baptiste François Pitra1 June 1879
Bartholomew Woodlock1 June 1879
Agostino Bausa24 March 1889
Giuseppe Antonio Ermenegildo Prisco29 May 1898

Pope Leo XIII (Italian: Leone; born Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci;[a] 2 March 1810 – 20 July 1903) was head of the Catholic Church from 20 February 1878 to his death. He was the oldest pope (reigning until the age of 93), and had the third-longest confirmed pontificate, behind that of Pius IX (his immediate predecessor) and John Paul II.

He is well known for his intellectualism and his attempts to define the position of the Catholic Church with regard to modern thinking. In his famous 1891 encyclical Rerum novarum, Pope Leo outlined the rights of workers to a fair wage, safe working conditions, and the formation of labor unions, while affirming the rights of property and free enterprise, opposing both Marxism and laissez-faire capitalism. He influenced Mariology of the Catholic Church and promoted both the rosary and the scapular.

Leo XIII issued a record of eleven Papal encyclicals on the rosary earning him the title as the "Rosary Pope". In addition, he approved two new Marian scapulars and was the first pope to fully embrace the concept of Mary as Mediatrix. He was the first pope to never have held any control over the Papal States, after they had been dissolved by 1870. He was briefly buried in the grottos of Saint Peter's Basilica before his remains were later transferred to the Basilica of Saint John Lateran.

Early life and education, 1810–36

The house in Carpineto, in which the Pecci brothers grew up

Born in Carpineto Romano, near Rome, he was the sixth of the seven sons of Count Ludovico Pecci and his wife Anna Prosperi Buzzi. His brothers included Giuseppe and Giovanni Battista Pecci. Until 1818 he lived at home with his family, "in which religion counted as the highest grace on earth, as through her, salvation can be earned for all eternity".[1] Together with his brother Giuseppe, he studied in the Jesuit College in Viterbo, where he stayed until 1824.[2] He enjoyed the Latin language and was known to write his own Latin poems at the age of eleven.

In 1824 he and his older brother Giuseppe were called to Rome where their mother was dying. Count Pecci wanted his children near him after the loss of his wife, and so they stayed with him in Rome, attending the Jesuit Collegium Romanum.

In 1828, 18-year-old Vincenzo decided in favour of secular clergy, while his brother Giuseppe entered the Jesuit order.[3] He studied at the Academia dei Nobili, mainly diplomacy and law. In 1834, he gave a student presentation, attended by several cardinals, on papal judgements. For his presentation he received awards for academic excellence, and gained the attention of Vatican officials.[4] Cardinal Secretary of State Luigi Lambruschini introduced him to Vatican congregations. During a cholera epidemic in Rome he assisted Cardinal Sala in his duties as overseer of all the city hospitals.[5] In 1836 he received his doctorate in theology and doctorates of civil and Canon Law in Rome.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Pous Leo XIII
Aymar aru: Liyun XIII
azərbaycanca: XIII Lev
Bân-lâm-gú: Kàu-hông Leo 13-sè
български: Лъв XIII
Boarisch: Leo XIII.
brezhoneg: Leon XIII
català: Lleó XIII
čeština: Lev XIII.
Cymraeg: Pab Leo XIII
Deutsch: Leo XIII.
eesti: Leo XIII
Ελληνικά: Πάπας Λέων ΙΓ΄
español: León XIII
Esperanto: Leono la 13-a
euskara: Leon XIII.a
français: Léon XIII
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hrvatski: Lav XIII.
Bahasa Indonesia: Paus Leo XIII
italiano: Papa Leone XIII
Basa Jawa: Paus Leo XIII
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Latina: Leo XIII
latviešu: Leons XIII
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македонски: Папа Лав XIII
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Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Gáu-huòng Leo 13-sié
Nederlands: Paus Leo XIII
norsk: Leo XIII
occitan: Leon XIII
polski: Leon XIII
português: Papa Leão XIII
Runa Simi: Liyun XIII
русский: Лев XIII
sicilianu: Liuni XIII
Simple English: Pope Leo XIII
slovenčina: Lev XIII.
slovenščina: Papež Leon XIII.
српски / srpski: Папа Лав XIII
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Lav XIII.
suomi: Leo XIII
svenska: Leo XIII
Türkçe: XIII. Leo
українська: Лев XIII
Tiếng Việt: Giáo hoàng Lêô XIII
Yorùbá: Pópù Leo 13k
粵語: 良十三世