Pope Honorius II

Pope
Honorius II
Pope honorius ii.jpg
Papacy began21 December 1124
Papacy ended13 February 1130
PredecessorCallixtus II
SuccessorInnocent II
Orders
Consecration1117
Created Cardinal1099
by Pope Urban II
Personal details
Birth nameLamberto Scannabecchi
Born(1060-02-09)9 February 1060
Fiagnano, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
Died(1130-02-13)13 February 1130
Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
Previous post[1]
Other popes named Honorius
Papal styles of
Pope Honorius II
Emblem of the Papacy SE.svg
Reference styleHis Holiness
Spoken styleYour Holiness
Religious styleHoly Father
Posthumous stylenone

Pope Honorius II (9 February 1060 – 13 February 1130), born Lamberto Scannabecchi,[2] was Pope from 21 December 1124 to his death in 1130.

Although from a humble background, his obvious intellect and outstanding abilities saw him promoted up through the ecclesiastical hierarchy. Attached to the Frangipani family of Rome, his election as pope was contested by a rival candidate, Celestine II, and force was used to guarantee his election.

Honorius' pontificate was concerned with ensuring that the privileges the Roman Catholic Church had obtained through the Concordat of Worms were preserved and, if possible, extended. He was the first pope to confirm the election of the Holy Roman Emperor. Distrustful of the traditional Benedictine order, he favoured new monastic orders, such as the Augustinians and the Cistercians, and sought to exercise more control over the larger monastic centres of Monte Cassino and Cluny Abbey. He also approved the new military order of the Knights Templar in 1128.

Honorius II failed to prevent Roger II of Sicily from extending his power in southern Italy and was unable to stop Louis VI of France from interfering in the affairs of the French church. Like his predecessors, he managed the wide-ranging affairs of the church through Papal Legates. With his death in 1130, the Church was again thrown into confusion with the election of two rival popes, Innocent II and the antipope Anacletus II.

Early life

Lamberto was of simple rural origins, hailing from Fiagnano in the Casalfiumanese commune, near Imola in present-day Italy.[2] Entering into an ecclesiastical career, he soon became archdeacon of Bologna,[2] where his abilities eventually saw him attract the attention of Pope Urban II,[3] who presumably appointed him cardinal priest of the Titulus St. Praxedis in 1099. His successor, Pope Paschal II, made Lamberto a Canon of the Lateran[4] before elevating him to the position of cardinal bishop of Ostia in 1117.[2] Lamberto was one of the cardinals who accompanied Pope Gelasius II into exile in 1118–19 and was at his bedside when Gelasius died.[3]

With Gelasius’ death at Cluny on January 29, 1119, Cardinal Lamberto and Cardinal Cono (Bishop of Palestrina) conducted the election of a new pope according to the canons. Cardinal Lamberto carried out the coronation of Guy de Bourgogne at Vienne on February 9, 1119, and became a close advisor of Pope Callixtus II.[2] Accompanying Callixtus throughout France, he assisted Callixtus in his initial dealings with Holy Roman Emperor Henry V.[3] As a well-known opponent of the emperor's right to select bishops in his territories (the Investiture Controversy), Lamberto was a natural choice for papal legate. He was sent in 1119 to deal with Henry V and delegated with powers to come to an understanding concerning the right of investiture.[3]

Forceful and determined, he summoned the bishops of the Holy Roman Empire to attend an assembly at Mainz on 8 September 1122. He expected absolute obedience, so much so that it took the mediation of Archbishop Adalbert of Mainz to prevent the suspension of Saint Otto of Bamberg for non-attendance.[5] The struggle came to a conclusion with the Concordat of Worms in 1122 and the "Pactum Calixtinum" that was almost entirely due to Lamberto's efforts[5] was effected on 23 September 1123.

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català: Honori II
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Esperanto: Honorio la 2-a
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hrvatski: Honorije II.
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italiano: Papa Onorio II
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polski: Honoriusz II
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sicilianu: Onoriu II
slovenčina: Honorius II.
slovenščina: Papež Honorij II.
српски / srpski: Папа Хонорије II
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Honorije II
svenska: Honorius II
українська: Гонорій II
粵語: 何諾二世