Pope

Bishop of Rome
Bishopric
catholic
Coat of arms Holy See.svg
Canonization 2014- The Canonization of Saint John XXIII and Saint John Paul II (14036966125).jpg
Incumbent:
Francis
since 13 March 2013
StyleHis Holiness
ProvinceEcclesiastical Province of Rome
DioceseRome
CathedralArchbasilica of St. John Lateran
First incumbentSaint Peter, according to Catholic tradition
Formation1st century
WebsiteHoly Father
Papal styles of
Pope
Insigne Francisci.svg
Reference styleHis Holiness
Spoken styleYour Holiness
Religious styleHoly Father

The pope (Latin: papa from Greek: πάππας pappas,[1] "father"),[2] also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and ex officio leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.[3] Since 1929, the pope has also been head of state of Vatican City,[4] a city-state entirely enclaved within Rome, Italy. The current pope is Francis, who was elected on 13 March 2013, succeeding Benedict XVI.[5]

While his office is called the papacy, the episcopal see and ecclesiastical jurisdiction is called the Holy See.[6] It is the Holy See that is the sovereign entity of international law headquartered in the distinctively independent Vatican City State, established by the Lateran Treaty in 1929 between Italy and the Holy See to ensure its temporal, diplomatic, and spiritual independence. The primacy of the Bishop of Rome is largely derived from his role as the apostolic successor to Saint Peter, to whom primacy was conferred by Jesus, giving him the Keys of Heaven and the powers of "binding and loosing", naming him as the "rock" upon which the church would be built.

The apostolic see[7] of Rome was founded by Saint Peter and Saint Paul in 1st century, according to Catholic tradition. The papacy is one of the most enduring institutions in the world and has had a prominent part in world history.[8] In ancient times the popes helped spread Christianity, and intervened to find resolutions in various doctrinal disputes.[9] In the Middle Ages, they played a role of secular importance in Western Europe, often acting as arbitrators between Christian monarchs.[10][11][12] Currently, in addition to the expansion of the Christian faith and doctrine, the popes are involved in ecumenism and interfaith dialogue, charitable work, and the defense of human rights.[13][14]

In some periods of history, popes, who originally had no temporal powers, accrued wide secular powers rivalling those of temporal rulers. However, in recent centuries the temporal authority of the papacy has declined and the office is now almost exclusively focused on religious matters.[9] By contrast, papal claims of spiritual authority have been increasingly firmly expressed over time, culminating in 1870 with the proclamation of the dogma of papal infallibility for rare occasions when the pope speaks ex cathedra—literally "from the chair (of Saint Peter)"—to issue a formal definition of faith or morals.[9] Still, the Pope is considered one of the world's most powerful people because of his extensive diplomatic, cultural, and spiritual influence on 1.3 billion Catholics and beyond,[15][16][17] as well as the official representative of the Catholic Church being the largest non-government provider of education and health care in the world,[18] with a vast international network of charities.

History

Title and etymology

The word pope derives from Greek πάππας meaning "father". In the early centuries of Christianity, this title was applied, especially in the east, to all bishops[19] and other senior clergy, and later became reserved in the west to the Bishop of Rome, a reservation made official only in the 11th century.[20][21][22][23][24] The earliest record of the use of this title was in regard to the by then deceased Patriarch of Alexandria, Pope Heraclas of Alexandria (232–248).[25] The earliest recorded use of the title "pope" in English dates to the mid-10th century, when it was used in reference to Pope Vitalian in an Old English translation of Bede's Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum.[26]

Position within the Church

The Catholic Church teaches that the pastoral office, the office of shepherding the Church, that was held by the apostles, as a group or "college" with Saint Peter as their head, is now held by their successors, the bishops, with the bishop of Rome (the pope) as their head.[27] Thus, is derived another title by which the pope is known, that of "Supreme Pontiff".

The Catholic Church teaches that Jesus personally appointed Peter as leader of the Church, and the Catholic Church's dogmatic constitution Lumen gentium makes a clear distinction between apostles and bishops, presenting the latter as the successors of the former, with the pope as successor of Peter, in that he is head of the bishops as Peter was head of the apostles.[28] Some historians argue against the notion that Peter was the first bishop of Rome, noting that the episcopal see in Rome can be traced back no earlier than the third century.[29] The writings of the Church Father Irenaeus who wrote around AD 180 reflect a belief that Peter "founded and organized" the Church at Rome.[30] Moreover, Irenaeus was not the first to write of Peter's presence in the early Roman Church. Clement of Rome wrote in a letter to the Corinthians, c. 96,[31] about the persecution of Christians in Rome as the "struggles in our time" and presented to the Corinthians its heroes, "first, the greatest and most just columns", the "good apostles" Peter and Paul.[32] St. Ignatius of Antioch wrote shortly after Clement and in his letter from the city of Smyrna to the Romans he said he would not command them as Peter and Paul did.[33] Given this and other evidence, such as Emperor Constantine's erection of the "Old St. Peter's Basilica" on the location of St. Peter's tomb, as held and given to him by Rome's Christian community, many scholars agree that Peter was martyred in Rome under Nero, although some scholars argue that he may have been martyred in Palestine.[34][35][36]

The New Testament offers no proof that Jesus established the papacy, nor even that he established Peter as the first bishop of Rome.[37] Some theologians argue, using Peter's own words, that Christ intended himself—and not Peter—as the foundation of the church.[38][39] Others have argued that the church is indeed built upon Jesus and faith, but also on the disciples as the roots and foundations of the church on the basis of Paul's teaching in Romans and Ephesians, though not primarily Peter.[40][41]

First-century Christian communities would have had a group of presbyter-bishops functioning as leaders of their local churches. Gradually, episcopacies were established in metropolitan areas.[42] Antioch may have developed such a structure before Rome.[42] In Rome, there were many who claimed to be the rightful bishop, though again Irenaeus stressed the validity of one line of bishops from the time of St. Peter up to his contemporary Pope Victor I and listed them.[43] Some writers claim that the emergence of a single bishop in Rome probably did not occur until the middle of the 2nd century. In their view, Linus, Cletus and Clement were possibly prominent presbyter-bishops, but not necessarily monarchical bishops.[29]

Documents of the 1st century and early 2nd century indicate that the bishop of Rome had some kind of pre-eminence and prominence in the Church as a whole, as even a letter from the bishop, or patriarch, of Antioch acknowledged the Bishop of Rome as "a first among equals",[44] though the detail of what this meant is unclear.[45]

Early Christianity (c. 30–325)

It seems that at first the terms "episcopos" and "presbyter" were used interchangeably.[46] The consensus among scholars has been that, at the turn of the 1st and 2nd centuries, local congregations were led by bishops and presbyters whose offices were overlapping or indistinguishable.[47] Some say that there was probably "no single 'monarchical' bishop in Rome before the middle of the 2nd century...and likely later."[48] Other scholars and historians disagree, citing the historical records of St. Ignatius of Antioch (d 107) and St. Irenaeus who recorded the linear succession of Bishops of Rome (the popes) up until their own times.[citation needed] They also cite the importance accorded to the Bishops of Rome in the ecumenical councils, including the early ones.[49]

In the early Christian era, Rome and a few other cities had claims on the leadership of worldwide Church. James the Just, known as "the brother of the Lord", served as head of the Jerusalem church, which is still honored as the "Mother Church" in Orthodox tradition. Alexandria had been a center of Jewish learning and became a center of Christian learning. Rome had a large congregation early in the apostolic period whom Paul the Apostle addressed in his Epistle to the Romans, and according to tradition Paul was martyred there.[citation needed]

During the 1st century of the Church (c. 30–130), the Roman capital became recognized as a Christian center of exceptional importance. Clement I, at the end of the 1st century, wrote an epistle to the Church in Corinth intervening in a major dispute, and apologizing for not having taken action earlier.[50] However, there are only a few other references of that time to recognition of the authoritative primacy of the Roman See outside of Rome. In the Ravenna Document of 13 October 2007, theologians chosen by the Catholic and the Eastern Orthodox Churches stated: "41. Both sides agree ... that Rome, as the Church that 'presides in love' according to the phrase of St Ignatius of Antioch,[51] occupied the first place in the taxis, and that the bishop of Rome was therefore the protos among the patriarchs. Translated into English, the statement means "first among equals". What form that should take is still a matter of disagreement, just as it was when the Catholic and Orthodox Churches split in the Great East-West Schism. They also disagree on the interpretation of the historical evidence from this era regarding the prerogatives of the Bishop of Rome as protos, a matter that was already understood in different ways in the first millennium."[citation needed]

In the late 2nd century AD, there were more manifestations of Roman authority over other churches. In 189, assertion of the primacy of the Church of Rome may be indicated in Irenaeus's Against Heresies (3:3:2): "With [the Church of Rome], because of its superior origin, all the churches must agree ... and it is in her that the faithful everywhere have maintained the apostolic tradition." In AD 195, Pope Victor I, in what is seen as an exercise of Roman authority over other churches, excommunicated the Quartodecimans for observing Easter on the 14th of Nisan, the date of the Jewish Passover, a tradition handed down by John the Evangelist (see Easter controversy). Celebration of Easter on a Sunday, as insisted on by the pope, is the system that has prevailed (see computus).

Nicaea to East-West Schism (325–1054)

The Edict of Milan in 313 granted freedom to all religions in the Roman Empire,[52] beginning the Peace of the Church. In 325, the First Council of Nicaea condemned Arianism, declaring trinitarianism dogmatic, and in its sixth canon recognized the special role of the Sees of Rome, Alexandria, and Antioch.[53] Great defenders of Trinitarian faith included the popes, especially Pope Liberius, who was exiled to Berea by Constantius II for his Trinitarian faith,[54] Damasus I, and several other bishops.[55]

In 380, the Edict of Thessalonica declared Nicene Christianity to be the state religion of the empire, with the name "Catholic Christians" reserved for those who accepted that faith.[56][57] While the civil power in the Eastern Roman Empire controlled the church, and the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, the capital, wielded much power,[58] in the Western Roman Empire, the Bishops of Rome were able to consolidate the influence and power they already possessed.[58] After the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, barbarian tribes were converted to Arian Christianity or Catholicism;[59] Clovis I, king of the Franks, was the first important barbarian ruler to convert to Catholicism rather than Arianism, allying himself with the papacy. Other tribes, such as the Visigoths, later abandoned Arianism in favour of Catholicism.[59]

Middle Ages

Gregory the Great (c 540–604) who established medieval themes in the Church, in a painting by Carlo Saraceni, c. 1610, Rome.

After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the pope served as a source of authority and continuity. Pope Gregory I (c 540–604) administered the church with strict reform. From an ancient senatorial family, Gregory worked with the stern judgement and discipline typical of ancient Roman rule. Theologically, he represents the shift from the classical to the medieval outlook; his popular writings are full of dramatic miracles, potent relics, demons, angels, ghosts, and the approaching end of the world.[60]

Gregory's successors were largely dominated by the Exarch of Ravenna, the Byzantine emperor's representative in the Italian Peninsula. These humiliations, the weakening of the Byzantine Empire in the face of the Muslim conquests, and the inability of the emperor to protect the papal estates against the Lombards, made Pope Stephen II turn from Emperor Constantine V. He appealed to the Franks to protect his lands. Pepin the Short subdued the Lombards and donated Italian land to the papacy. When Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne (800) as Roman Emperor, he established the precedent that, in Western Europe, no man would be emperor without being crowned by a Pope.[60]

The low point of the papacy was 867–1049.[61] This period includes the Saeculum obscurum, the Crescentii era, and the Tusculan Papacy. The papacy came under the control of vying political factions. Popes were variously imprisoned, starved, killed, and deposed by force. The family of a certain papal official made and unmade popes for fifty years. The official's great-grandson, Pope John XII, held orgies of debauchery in the Lateran Palace. Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor had John accused in an ecclesiastical court, which deposed him and elected a layman as Pope Leo VIII. John mutilated the Imperial representatives in Rome and had himself reinstated as pope. Conflict between the Emperor and the papacy continued, and eventually dukes in league with the emperor were buying bishops and popes almost openly.[61]

In 1049, Leo IX became pope, at last a pope with the character to face the papacy's problems. He traveled to the major cities of Europe to deal with the church's moral problems firsthand, notably simony and clerical marriage and concubinage. With his long journey, he restored the prestige of the papacy in Northern Europe.[61]

From the 7th century it became common for European monarchies and nobility to found churches and perform investiture or deposition of clergy in their states and fiefdoms, their personal interests causing corruption among the clergy.[62][63] This practice had become common because often the prelates and secular rulers were also participants in public life.[64] To combat this and other practices that had corrupted the Church between the years 900 and 1050, centres emerged promoting ecclesiastical reform, the most important being the Abbey of Cluny, which spread its ideals throughout Europe.[63] This reform movement gained strength with the election of Pope Gregory VII in 1073, who adopted a series of measures in the movement known as the Gregorian Reform, in order to fight strongly against simony and the abuse of civil power and try to restore ecclesiastical discipline, including clerical celibacy.[55] The conflict between popes and secular autocratic rulers such as the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV and Henry I of England, known as the Investiture Controversy, was only resolved in 1122, by the Concordat of Worms, in which Pope Callixtus II decreed that clerics were to be invested by clerical leaders, and temporal rulers by lay investiture.[62] Soon after, Pope Alexander III began reforms that would lead to the establishment of canon law.[60]

Since the beginning of the 7th century, the Caliphate had conquered much of the southern Mediterranean, and represented a threat to Christianity.[65] In 1095, the Byzantine emperor, Alexios I Komnenos, asked for military aid from Pope Urban II in the ongoing Byzantine–Seljuq wars.[66] Urban, at the council of Clermont, called the First Crusade to assist the Byzantine Empire to regain the old Christian territories, especially Jerusalem.[67]

East–West Schism to Reformation (1054–1517)

A historical map of the Mediterranean states in 1400. The Western Schism lasted from 1378 to 1417.

With the East–West Schism, the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church split definitively in 1054. This fracture was caused more by political events than by slight divergences of creed. Popes had galled the Byzantine emperors by siding with the king of the Franks, crowning a rival Roman emperor, appropriating the Exarchate of Ravenna, and driving into Greek Italy.[61]

In the Middle Ages, popes struggled with monarchs over power.[9]

From 1309 to 1377, the pope resided not in Rome but in Avignon. The Avignon Papacy was notorious for greed and corruption.[68] During this period, the pope was effectively an ally of the Kingdom of France, alienating France's enemies, such as the Kingdom of England.[69]

The pope was understood to have the power to draw on the Treasury of Merit built up by the saints and by Christ, so that he could grant indulgences, reducing one's time in purgatory. The concept that a monetary fine or donation accompanied contrition, confession, and prayer eventually gave way to the common assumption that indulgences depended on a simple monetary contribution. The popes condemned misunderstandings and abuses, but were too pressed for income to exercise effective control over indulgences.[68]

Popes also contended with the cardinals, who sometimes attempted to assert the authority of Catholic Ecumenical Councils over the pope's. Conciliarism holds that the supreme authority of the church lies with a General Council, not with the pope. Its foundations were laid early in the 13th century, and it culminated in the 15th century. The failure of Conciliarism to gain broad acceptance after the 15th century is taken as a factor in the Protestant Reformation.[70]

Various Antipopes challenged papal authority, especially during the Western Schism (1378–1417). In this schism, the papacy had returned to Rome from Avignon, but an antipope was installed in Avignon, as if to extend the papacy there.[citation needed]

The Eastern Church continued to decline with the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire, undercutting Constantinople's claim to equality with Rome. Twice an Eastern Emperor tried to force the Eastern Church to reunify with the West. First in the Second Council of Lyon (1272–1274) and secondly in the Council of Florence (1431–1449). Papal claims of superiority were a sticking point in reunification, which failed in any event. In the 15th century, the Ottoman Empire captured Constantinople.[citation needed]

Reformation to present (1517 to today)

As part of the Catholic Reformation, Pope Paul III (1534–49) initiated the Council of Trent (1545–63), which established the triumph of the papacy over those who sought to reconcile with Protestants or oppose Papal claims.

Protestant Reformers criticized the papacy as corrupt and characterized the pope as the antichrist.[71][72][73][74]

Popes instituted a Catholic Reformation[9] (1560–1648), which addressed the challenges of the Protestant Reformation and instituted internal reforms. Pope Paul III initiated the Council of Trent (1545–1563), whose definitions of doctrine and whose reforms sealed the triumph of the papacy over elements in the church that sought conciliation with Protestants and opposed papal claims.[75]

Gradually forced to give up secular power, the popes focused on spiritual issues.[9]

In 1870, the First Vatican Council proclaimed the dogma of papal infallibility for those rare occasions the pope speaks ex cathedra when issuing a solemn definition of faith or morals.[9]

Later the same year, Victor Emmanuel II of Italy seized Rome from the pope's control and substantially completed the Italian unification.[9]

In 1929, the Lateran Treaty between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy See established Vatican City as an independent city-state, guaranteeing papal independence from secular rule.[9]

In 1950, Pope Pius XII defined the Assumption of Mary as dogma, the only time that a pope has spoken ex cathedra since papal infallibility was explicitly declared.

The Petrine Doctrine is still controversial as an issue of doctrine that continues to divide the eastern and western churches and separate Protestants from Rome.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Pous
Alemannisch: Papst
አማርኛ: የሮሜ ፓፓ
Ænglisc: Pāpa
aragonés: Papa
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܦܐܦܐ
armãneashti: Papa
asturianu: Papa
azərbaycanca: Papa
বাংলা: পোপ
Bân-lâm-gú: Kàu-hông
беларуская: Папства
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Папа
Bikol Central: Papa
български: Папа
Boarisch: Popst
bosanski: Papa
brezhoneg: Pab
català: Papa
Чӑвашла: Поп
Cebuano: Papa
čeština: Papež
corsu: Papa
Cymraeg: Pab
dansk: Pave
Deitsch: Baapscht
Deutsch: Papst
dolnoserbski: Bamž
eesti: Paavst
Ελληνικά: Πάπας
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Papa
español: Papa
Esperanto: Papo
euskara: Aita santu
فارسی: پاپ
français: Pape
Frysk: Paus
Gaeilge: Pápa
Gàidhlig: Pàpa
galego: Papa
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Kau-fòng
한국어: 교황
հայերեն: Հռոմի Պապ
हिन्दी: पोप
hornjoserbsce: Bamž
hrvatski: Papa
Ido: Papo
Ilokano: Papa
Bahasa Indonesia: Paus (Gereja Katolik)
interlingua: Papa
Interlingue: Pápa
íslenska: Páfi
italiano: Papa
עברית: אפיפיור
Basa Jawa: Paus
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಪೋಪ್
ქართული: რომის პაპი
қазақша: Папалық
kernowek: Pab
Kiswahili: Papa
Kreyòl ayisyen: Pap
kurdî: Papa
Кыргызча: Рим папасы
Ladino: Papás
Latina: Papa
latviešu: Romas pāvests
Lëtzebuergesch: Poopst
lietuvių: Popiežius
Limburgs: Paus
lingála: Pápa
lumbaart: Papa
македонски: Папа
മലയാളം: മാർപ്പാപ്പ
मराठी: पोप
მარგალური: რომიშ პაპი
مازِرونی: پاپ
Bahasa Melayu: Paus (Katolik)
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Gáu-huòng
Mirandés: Papa
монгол: Пап
Dorerin Naoero: Dopope
Nederlands: Paus
Nedersaksies: Paus
नेपाल भाषा: पोप
日本語: 教皇
Napulitano: Papa
norsk: Pave
norsk nynorsk: Pave
Nouormand: Pape
occitan: Papa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Rim papasi
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਪੋਪ
Papiamentu: Papa
Patois: Puop
ភាសាខ្មែរ: សម្ដេចប៉ាប
Tok Pisin: Pop
Plattdüütsch: Paapst
polski: Papież
português: Papa
română: Papă
rumantsch: Papa
Runa Simi: Pápa (chakariq)
русиньскый: Папа римскый
русский: Папство
саха тыла: Паапа
sardu: Paba
Scots: Pape
shqip: Papa
sicilianu: Papa
Simple English: Pope
slovenčina: Pápež
slovenščina: Papež
ślůnski: Papjyż
کوردی: پاپا
српски / srpski: Папа
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Papa
suomi: Paavi
svenska: Påve
Tagalog: Papa
татарча/tatarça: Рим папасы
తెలుగు: పోప్
тоҷикӣ: Поп
Türkçe: Papa
українська: Папа Римський
اردو: پوپ
vèneto: Papa
Tiếng Việt: Giáo hoàng
walon: Påpe
文言: 羅馬教宗
West-Vlams: Paus
Winaray: Papa
吴语: 教宗
ייִדיש: פויבסט
Yorùbá: Pópù
粵語: 教宗
Zazaki: Papa
Zeêuws: Paus
žemaitėška: Puopėžios
中文: 教宗
Kabɩyɛ: Papa
Lingua Franca Nova: Pape