Ponte Morandi in 2010, viewed from west
|Carries||Four lanes of roadway|
|Official name||Viadotto Polcevera|
|Total length||1,182 metres (1,293 yd)|
|Height||Piers 90 metres (300 ft), |
Road Deck 45 metres (148 ft)
|Longest span||210 metres (690 ft)|
|40 metres (130 ft)|
|Opened||4 September 1967|
|Collapsed||14 August 2018|
|Destroyed||28 June 2019|
Ponte Morandi (English: Morandi Bridge), officially Viadotto Polcevera (English: Polcevera Viaduct), was a road
An engineering and architectural landmark since its construction, the bridge not only connected Genoa's
When a 210 metres (690 ft) section of the viaduct collapsed during a rainstorm on August 14, 2018, 43 people died — leading to a yearlong state of emergency in the Liguria region, extensive analysis of the structural failure and widely varying assignment of responsibility.
The viaduct, not yet replaced, has been fully demolished.
The bridge was designed by
The Ponte Morandi was a
The viaduct was built between 1963 and 1967 by the
The bridge had been subject to continual restoration work since the 1970s due to an incorrect initial assessment of the effects of
In a 1979 report, Morandi himself recommended: "remove all traces of rust on the exposure of the reinforcements, fill the patches with epoxy resin, and cover everything up with elastomer of very high chemical resistance". In the 1990s, the tendons on pillar 11 appeared to be most damaged. About 30% of the tendons had corroded away. The load of the bridge was 7,000 kg (15,000 lb) per tendon, while the tendons were originally capable of carrying 15,000 kg (33,000 lb)[
The then-minister of infrastructures and transport
In Genoa, in 2017, a confidential university report noted disparities in the behaviour of the stays of the now collapsed pillar 9. The minutes of a February 2018 government meeting reported that resistance and reflectometry measurements had been performed indicating an "average" reduction of the cross section of 10 to 20% of the tendons. A crack in the road had appeared at least 14 days before the collapse, near the south-eastern stay of the subsequently-collapsed pillar 9. The crack may have indicated that the stay had stretched. At no point was there a suggestion to reduce the load on the bridge. Traditionally, bridges were designed only for a 50-year life span; the bridge failed just under 51 years after its opening.
On 3 May 2018, the Autostrade company had announced a call for tenders for a structural upgrade of the viaduct to the value of €20,159,000, with a deadline of 11 June 2018. The work on the reinforcement of the stays on pillars 9 and 10 would have needed to be finished within five years.
Workers were installing new heavy concrete
In 2017, Carmelo Gentile and Antonello Ruccolo of the
By the mid-2000s, the A10 route through Genoa and over the bridge had become highly congested. The city council requested proposals for improvement of traffic flow through Genoa, with the Autostrade company in 2009 proposing the "Gronda di Ponente" project to improve flow, by moving traffic to a newly built Autostrada interchange system located to the north of the city. As part of the initial study and report, the Autostrade company measured that the bridge carried 25.5 million transits a year, with traffic having quadrupled in the previous 30 years and "destined to grow, even in the absence of intervention, by a further 30% in the next 30 years". The study highlighted how the traffic volume, with daily queues at peak hours joining the