Polycystic ovary syndrome

Polycystic ovary syndrome
SynonymsHyperandrogenic anovulation (HA),[1] Stein–Leventhal syndrome[2]
PCOS.jpg
A polycystic ovary shown on an ultrasound image.
SpecialtyGynecology
SymptomsIrregular menstrual periods, heavy periods, excess hair, acne, pelvic pain, difficulty getting pregnant, patches of thick, darker, velvety skin[3]
ComplicationsType 2 diabetes, obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, heart disease, mood disorders, endometrial cancer[4]
DurationLong term[5]
CausesGenetic and environmental factors[6][7]
Risk factorsObesity, not enough exercise, family history[8]
Diagnostic methodBased on no ovulation, high androgen levels, ovarian cysts[4]
Differential diagnosisAdrenal hyperplasia, hypothyroidism, high blood levels of prolactin[9]
TreatmentWeight loss, exercise[10][11]
MedicationBirth control pills, metformin, anti-androgens[12]
Frequency2% to 20% of women of childbearing age[8][13]

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a set of symptoms due to elevated androgens (male hormones) in females.[4][14] Signs and symptoms of PCOS include irregular or no menstrual periods, heavy periods, excess body and facial hair, acne, pelvic pain, difficulty getting pregnant, and patches of thick, darker, velvety skin.[3] Associated conditions include type 2 diabetes, obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, heart disease, mood disorders, and endometrial cancer.[4]

PCOS is due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors.[6][7][15] Risk factors include obesity, a lack of physical exercise, and a family history of someone with the condition.[8] Diagnosis is based on two of the following three findings: no ovulation, high androgen levels, and ovarian cysts.[4] Cysts may be detectable by ultrasound.[9] Other conditions that produce similar symptoms include adrenal hyperplasia, hypothyroidism, and high blood levels of prolactin.[9]

PCOS has no cure.[5] Treatment may involve lifestyle changes such as weight loss and exercise.[10][11] Birth control pills may help with improving the regularity of periods, excess hair growth, and acne.[12] Metformin and anti-androgens may also help.[12] Other typical acne treatments and hair removal techniques may be used.[12] Efforts to improve fertility include weight loss, clomiphene, or metformin.[16] In vitro fertilization is used by some in whom other measures are not effective.[16]

PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder among women between the ages of 18 and 44.[17] It affects approximately 2% to 20% of this age group depending on how it is defined.[8][13] When someone is infertile due to lack of ovulation, PCOS is the most common cause.[4] The earliest known description of what is now recognized as PCOS dates from 1721 in Italy.[18]

Signs and symptoms

Common signs and symptoms of PCOS include the following:

Asians affected by PCOS are less likely to develop hirsutism than those of other ethnic backgrounds.[22]

Women with PCOS tend to have central obesity, but studies are conflicting as to whether visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat is increased, unchanged, or decreased in women with PCOS relative to reproductively normal women with the same body mass index.[23] In any case, androgens, such as testosterone, androstanolone (dihydrotestosterone), and nandrolone decanoate, have been found to increase visceral fat deposition in both female animals and women.[24]

Other Languages
Bahasa Indonesia: Sindrom ovarium polikistik
Tiếng Việt: Đa nang buồng trứng