Polycystic ovary syndrome Synonyms Hyperandrogenic anovulation (HA), Stein–Leventhal syndrome   A polycystic ovary shown on an . ultrasound image Specialty Gynecology Symptoms Irregular , menstrual periods , heavy periods , excess hair , pelvic pain, acne , difficulty getting pregnant patches of thick, darker, velvety skin  Complications , Type 2 diabetes , obesity , obstructive sleep apnea , heart disease , mood disorders endometrial cancer  Duration Long term  Causes Genetic and environmental factors   Risk factors , not enough exercise, family history Obesity  Diagnostic method Based on no ovulation, high levels, androgen ovarian cysts  Differential diagnosis , Adrenal hyperplasia , hypothyroidism hyperprolactinemia  Treatment Weight loss, exercise   Medication , Birth control pills , metformin anti-androgens  Frequency 2% to 20% of women of childbearing age   Polycystic ovary syndrome ( PCOS) is a set of symptoms due to elevated (male hormones) in females. androgens  Signs and symptoms of PCOS include irregular or no  , menstrual periods , heavy periods , excess body and facial hair , pelvic pain, acne , and difficulty getting pregnant . patches of thick, darker, velvety skin Associated conditions include  , type 2 diabetes , obesity , obstructive sleep apnea , heart disease , and mood disorders . endometrial cancer 
PCOS is due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors.
  Risk factors include  , not enough physical exercise, and a family history of someone with the condition. obesity Diagnosis is based on two of the following three findings: no ovulation, high  levels, and androgen . ovarian cysts Cysts may be detectable by  . ultrasound Other conditions that produce similar symptoms include  , adrenal hyperplasia , and hypothyroidism . hyperprolactinemia 
PCOS has no cure.
Treatment may involve lifestyle changes such as weight loss and exercise.    may help with improving the regularity of periods, excess hair growth, and acne. Birth control pills  and Metformin may also help. anti-androgens Other typical acne treatments and hair removal techniques may be used.  Efforts to improve fertility include weight loss,  , or metformin. clomiphene  is used by some in whom other measures are not effective. In vitro fertilization 
PCOS is the most common
among women between the ages of 18 and 44. endocrine disorder It affects approximately 2% to 20% of this age group depending on how it is defined.   It is one of the leading causes of poor fertility.  The earliest known description of what is now recognized as PCOS dates from 1721 in Italy.  
Signs and symptoms
Common signs and symptoms of PCOS include the following:
Asians affected by PCOS are less likely to develop hirsutism than those of other ethnic backgrounds.