Politics of Austria

Political System of Austria
Politisches System Österreichs
Austria Bundesadler.svg
State typeFederal parliamentary republic
ConstitutionConstitution of Austria
Legislative branch
NameParliament
TypeBicameral
Meeting placeParliament Building (normally)
Hofburg (provisionally)
Upper house
NameFederal Council
Presiding officerInge Posch-Gruska
President of the Federal Council
AppointerIndirect elections
Lower house
NameNational Council
Presiding officerWolfgang Sobotka
President of the National Council
AppointerPopular vote
Executive branch
Head of State
TitlePresident
CurrentlyAlexander van der Bellen
AppointerDirect popular vote
Head of Government
TitleChancellor
CurrentlySebastian Kurz
AppointerPresident
Cabinet
NameFederal Government
Current cabinetKurz government
LeaderChancellor
Deputy leaderVice-Chancellor
AppointerPresident
HeadquartersFederal Chancellery
Ministries11
Judicial branch
NameJudiciary of Austria
Constitutional Court
Chief judgeBrigitte Bierlein
SeatSeat of the Constitutional Court
Supreme Court of Justice
Chief judgeEckart Ratz
SeatPalace of Justice
Supreme Administrative Court
Chief judgeRudolf Thienel
SeatSeat of the Supreme Administrative Court

The politics of Austria take place in the framework of the federal parliamentary republic of Austria, with a President as head of state, and a Chancellor as the head of government. Governments, both local and federal, exercise executive power. Federal legislative power is vested both in the Federal Government and in the two chambers of Parliament; the National Council and the Federal Council. The Judiciary of Austria is independent of the executive and the legislature.

Since 1949 the conservative Austrian People's Party (ÖVP) and the centre-left Social Democratic Party of Austria (SPÖ) have largely dominated the party-political landscape of Austria.

The ethnically and culturally heterogeneous nation state of Austria is one of the many remnant states of Austria-Hungary, a vast multinational empire that ceased to exist in 1918. The Austrian Republic was preceded by a constitutional monarchy, whose legislative body was elected by, as The New York Times put it, "quasi-universal (male) suffrage" for the first time in 1897.[1]

Austria's first attempt at republican governance, after the fall of the monarchy in 1918, was severely hampered by the crippling economic costs of war reparations required by the victorious Allies. Austria's First Republic (1918–1938) made some pioneering reforms in the 1920s, particularly in Vienna, that served as models for the social-welfare states of post-World War I Europe. However, the Republic gradually developed into an Austrofascist dictatorship between 1933-1934 under Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss, whom Nazi party agents assassinated in 1934. The First Republic ended with the Anschluss into Nazi Germany in 1938. Following the defeat of the German Reich in 1945 Austria resumed its republican government, after fully restoring its independence.

The beginning of the 21st century marked, for Austria, a half-century of a stable government under a constitutional federal republican system. It is governed according to the principles of representative democracy and the rule of law. The constitutional framework of the politics of Austria and the marrow of the constitution's practical implementation are widely agreed[by whom?] to be robust and adequately[quantify] conducive to peaceful change.

The Economist Intelligence Unit has rated Austria as "full democracy" in 2016.[2]

Constitution

Austria's constitution characterizes the republic as a federation consisting of nine autonomous federal states. Both the federation and all its states have written constitutions defining them as republican entities governed according to the principles of representative democracy. Aside from the fact that the states of Austria lack an independent judiciary on the one hand and that their autonomy is largely notional on the other hand, Austria's government structure resembles that of some much larger federal republics such as Germany.

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