Politics

Politics (from Greek: πολιτικά, translit. Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group.[1]

It refers to achieving and exercising positions of governance—organized control over a human community, particularly a state.[2] The academic study focusing on just politics, which is therefore more targeted than all Political science, is sometimes referred to as Politology (not to be confused with Politicology).

In modern nation-states, people have formed political parties to represent their ideas. They agree to take the same position on many issues and agree to support the same changes to law and the same leaders.[3]

An election is usually a competition between different parties.[4] Some examples of political parties worldwide are: the African National Congress (ANC) in South Africa, the Conservatives in the United Kingdom, the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) in Germany and the Indian National Congress in India.

Politics is a multifaceted word. It has a set of fairly specific meanings that are descriptive and nonjudgmental (such as "the art or science of government" and "political principles"), but often does carry a connotation of dishonest malpractice.[1][5][6] The word has been used negatively for many years: the British national anthem as published in 1745 calls on God to "Confound their politics",[7] and the phrase "play politics", for example, has been in use since at least 1853, when abolitionist Wendell Phillips declared: "We do not play politics; anti-slavery is no half-jest with us."[8]

A variety of methods are deployed in politics, which include promoting one's own political views among people, negotiation with other political subjects, making laws, and exercising force, including warfare against adversaries.[9][10][11][12][13] Politics is exercised on a wide range of social levels, from clans and tribes of traditional societies, through modern local governments, companies and institutions up to sovereign states, to the international level.

It is very often said that politics is about power.[14] A political system is a framework which defines acceptable political methods within a given society. The history of political thought can be traced back to early antiquity, with seminal works such as Plato's Republic, Aristotle's Politics and the works of Confucius.

Etymology

Women voter outreach from 1935.

The word comes from the same Greek word from which the title of Aristotle's book Politics (Πολιτικά, Polis) also derives; polis means "affairs of the cities". The book title was rendered in Early Modern English in the mid-15th century as "Polettiques";[15] it became "politics" in Modern English. The singular politic first attested in English 1430 and comes from Middle French politique, in turn from Latin politicus,[16] which is the Latinization of the Greek πολιτικός (politikos), meaning amongst others "of, for, or relating to citizens", "civil", "civic", "belonging to the state",[17] in turn from πολίτης (polites), "citizen"[17] and that from πόλις (polis), "city".[17]

Classifications

Formal politics refers to the operation of a constitutional system of government and publicly defined institutions and procedures.[14] Political parties, public policy or discussions about war and foreign affairs would fall under the category of Formal Politics.[14] Many people view formal politics as something outside of themselves, but that can still affect their daily lives.[14]

Semi-formal politics is politics in government associations such as neighborhood associations, or student governments where student government political party politics is often important.

Informal politics is understood as forming alliances, exercising power and protecting and advancing particular ideas or goals. Generally, this includes anything affecting one's daily life, such as the way an office or household is managed, or how one person or group exercises influence over another.[14] Informal Politics is typically understood as everyday politics, hence the idea that "politics is everywhere".[14]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Politiek
Alemannisch: Politik
አማርኛ: ፖለቲካ
العربية: سياسة
aragonés: Politica
armãneashti: Politicâ
asturianu: Política
Avañe'ẽ: Jokuaikuaa
azərbaycanca: Siyasət
تۆرکجه: سیاست
bamanankan: Politiki
বাংলা: রাজনীতি
Bân-lâm-gú: Chèng-tī
башҡортса: Сәйәсәт
беларуская: Палітыка
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Палітыка
भोजपुरी: राजनीति
български: Политика
Boarisch: Politik
བོད་ཡིག: ཆབ་སྲིད་
bosanski: Politika
brezhoneg: Politikerezh
català: Política
Cebuano: Politika
čeština: Politika
Chamoru: Politika
corsu: Pulitica
dansk: Politik
Deutsch: Politik
eesti: Poliitika
Ελληνικά: Πολιτική
español: Política
Esperanto: Politiko
estremeñu: Política
euskara: Politika
فارسی: سیاست
Fiji Hindi: Rajniti
føroyskt: Politikkur
français: Politique
Frysk: Polityk
furlan: Politiche
Gaeilge: Polaitíocht
Gàidhlig: Poilitigs
galego: Política
ГӀалгӀай: Политика
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Chṳn-chhṳ
한국어: 정치
Hausa: Siyasa
Hawaiʻi: Kālaiʻāina
हिन्दी: राजनीति
hrvatski: Politika
Ilokano: Politika
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: রাজনীতি
Bahasa Indonesia: Politik
interlingua: Politica
Interlingue: Politica
íslenska: Stjórnmál
italiano: Politica
עברית: פוליטיקה
Basa Jawa: Pulitik
kalaallisut: Politikki
ಕನ್ನಡ: ರಾಜನೀತಿ
къарачай-малкъар: Политика
ქართული: პოლიტიკა
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: سِیاسَت
қазақша: Саясат
Kiswahili: Siasa
Kreyòl ayisyen: Politik (non)
Кыргызча: Саясат
Ladino: Politika
Latina: Civilitas
latviešu: Politika
Lëtzebuergesch: Politik
lietuvių: Politika
Ligure: Politica
Limburgs: Polletiek
lingála: Politíki
Lingua Franca Nova: Politica
Livvinkarjala: Politiekku
la .lojban.: plajva
lumbaart: Pulitica
magyar: Politika
मैथिली: राजनीति
македонски: Политика
Malagasy: Politika
മലയാളം: രാഷ്ട്രീയം
मराठी: राजकारण
მარგალური: პოლიტიკა
مصرى: سياسه
مازِرونی: سیاست
Bahasa Melayu: Politik
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Céng-dê
Mirandés: Política
монгол: Улс төр
မြန်မာဘာသာ: နိုင်ငံရေး
Nederlands: Politiek
Nedersaksies: Politiek
नेपाली: राजनीति
नेपाल भाषा: राजनीति
日本語: 政治
Nordfriisk: Politiik
norsk: Politikk
norsk nynorsk: Politikk
Nouormand: Politique
occitan: Politica
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Siyosat
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਸਿਆਸਤ
پنجابی: سیاست
Papiamentu: Polítika
پښتو: واگ
Patois: Palitix
ភាសាខ្មែរ: នយោបាយ
Picard: Politike
Piemontèis: Polìtica
Tok Pisin: Politikis
Plattdüütsch: Politik
polski: Polityka
português: Política
română: Politică
rumantsch: Politica
Runa Simi: Llaqta pusay
русиньскый: Політіка
русский: Политика
саха тыла: Бэлиитикэ
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱟᱹᱨᱤ
संस्कृतम्: राजनीतिः
sardu: Polìtiga
Scots: Politics
Seeltersk: Politik
shqip: Politika
sicilianu: Pulìtica
Simple English: Politics
slovenčina: Politika
slovenščina: Politika
Soomaaliga: Siyaasad
کوردی: سیاسەت
српски / srpski: Политика
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Politika
Basa Sunda: Pulitik
suomi: Politiikka
svenska: Politik
Tagalog: Politika
தமிழ்: அரசியல்
Taqbaylit: Tasertit
татарча/tatarça: Сәясәт
తెలుగు: రాజకీయాలు
тоҷикӣ: Сиёсат
Türkçe: Siyaset
тыва дыл: Политика
українська: Політика
اردو: سیاست
Vahcuengh: Cwngci
vèneto: Pułìtega
Tiếng Việt: Chính trị
Volapük: Bolit
Võro: Poliitiga
walon: Politike
Winaray: Politika
Wolof: Politig
吴语: 政治
Xitsonga: Politiki
ייִדיש: פאליטיק
Yorùbá: Ìṣèlú
粵語: 政治
Zazaki: Politika
Zeêuws: Politiek
žemaitėška: Puolitėka
中文: 政治