Polish language

Polish
polski
Pronunciation[ˈpɔlskʲi] (About this soundlisten)
Native toPoland, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, central-western Lithuania, bordering regions of western Ukraine and western Belarus (Kresy)
EthnicityPoles
Kashubes
Silesians
Native speakers
45 million[1]
L2 speakers: 5 million+[2]
Early forms
Latin (Polish alphabet)
Polish Braille
System Językowo-Migowy (SJM)
Official status
Official language in
 Poland
 European Union
Recognised minority
language in
Regulated byPolish Language Council
(of the Polish Academy of Sciences)
Language codes
pl
pol
ISO 639-3polinclusive code
Individual code:
szl – Silesian
poli1260[8]
Linguasphere53-AAA-cc 53-AAA-b..-d
(varieties: 53-AAA-cca to 53-AAA-ccu)
Map of Polish language.svg
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Polish (język polski [jɛ̃zɨk ˈpɔlskʲi] (About this soundlisten), polszczyzna, or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles. It belongs to the Lechitic subgroup of the West Slavic languages written in Latin script.[9] Polish is the official language of Poland, but it is also used by Polish minorities in other countries. There are over 50 million[2][1] Polish language speakers around the world and it is one of the official languages of the European Union.

Polish is written with the standard Polish alphabet, which has 9 additions to the letters of the basic Latin script (ą, ć, ę, ł, ń, ó, ś, ź, ż). Polish is closely related to Czech and Slovak. The language currently has the largest number of speakers of the West Slavic group and is also the second most widely spoken Slavic language.[10][11]

Historically, Polish was known to be lingua franca,[12][13] an important language, both diplomatically and academically in Central and Eastern Europe. Today, Polish is spoken by over 38.5 million people as their first language in Poland. It is also spoken as a second language in northern Czech Republic and Slovakia, Hungary, western parts of Belarus and Ukraine, and central-western Lithuania. Because of the emigration from Poland during different time periods, most notably after World War II, millions of Polish speakers can be found in countries such as Israel, Australia, Argentina, Brazil, Canada, the United Kingdom, Ireland, the United States and New Zealand.

History

Polish began to emerge as a distinct language around the 10th century, the process largely triggered by the establishment and development of the Polish state. Mieszko I, ruler of the Polans tribe from the Greater Poland region, united a few culturally and linguistically related tribes from the basins of the Vistula and Oder before eventually accepting baptism in 966. With Christianity, Poland also adopted the Latin alphabet, which made it possible to write down Polish, until then existing only as a spoken language.[14] "It is worth mentioning," writes Tomasz Kamusella, "that Polish is the oldest, non-ecclesiastical, written Slavic language with a continuous tradition of literacy and official use, which has lasted unbroken from the 16th century to this day."[15]

The Book of Henryków is the earliest document to include a sentence written entirely in what can be interpreted as an Old Polish language - Day, ut ia pobrusa, a ti poziwai highlited in red

The precursor to modern Polish is the Old Polish language. Ultimately, Polish is thought to descend from the unattested Proto-Slavic language. Polish was a lingua franca from 1500–1700 in Central and small portions of Eastern Europe, because of the political, cultural, scientific and military influence of the former Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.[16]

The Book of Henryków (Polish: Księga henrykowska, Latin: Liber fundationis claustri Sancte Marie Virginis in Heinrichau), contains the earliest known sentence written in the Polish language: Day, ut ia pobrusa, a ti poziwai (pronounced originally as: Daj, uć ja pobrusza, a ti pocziwaj, modern Polish: Daj, niech ja pomielę, a ty odpoczywaj or Pozwól, że ja będę mełł, a ty odpocznij, English: Come, let me grind, and you take a rest), written around 1270.

The medieval recorder of this phrase, the Cistercian monk Peter of the Henryków monastery, noted that "Hoc est in polonico" ("This is in Polish").[17][18][19]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Pools
Alemannisch: Polnische Sprache
አማርኛ: ፖልኛ
Ænglisc: Polisc sprǣc
العربية: لغة بولندية
aragonés: Idioma polaco
arpetan: Polonès
asturianu: Idioma polacu
Avañe'ẽ: Poloñañe'ẽ
azərbaycanca: Polyak dili
Bân-lâm-gú: Pho-lân-gí
башҡортса: Поляк теле
беларуская: Польская мова
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Польская мова
भोजपुरी: पोलिश भाषा
български: Полски език
བོད་ཡིག: ཕོ་ལན་སྐད།
bosanski: Poljski jezik
brezhoneg: Poloneg
català: Polonès
Чӑвашла: Поляк чĕлхи
čeština: Polština
Cymraeg: Pwyleg
davvisámegiella: Polskkagiella
ދިވެހިބަސް: ލަހިސްތާނީ
dolnoserbski: Pólšćina
eesti: Poola keel
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Pulàc
español: Idioma polaco
Esperanto: Pola lingvo
euskara: Poloniera
eʋegbe: Pɔlisigbe
Fiji Hindi: Polish bhasa
føroyskt: Pólskt mál
français: Polonais
Frysk: Poalsk
Gaeilge: An Pholainnis
Gaelg: Polynnish
Gàidhlig: Pòlais
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Pô-làn-ngî
한국어: 폴란드어
հայերեն: Լեհերեն
हिन्दी: पोलिश भाषा
hornjoserbsce: Pólšćina
hrvatski: Poljski jezik
Bahasa Indonesia: Bahasa Polski
interlingua: Lingua polonese
isiZulu: IsiPholisi
íslenska: Pólska
italiano: Lingua polacca
עברית: פולנית
Basa Jawa: Basa Polen
Kabɩyɛ: Polonɛɛ
kalaallisut: Polenimiutut
къарачай-малкъар: Поляк тил
ქართული: პოლონური ენა
kaszëbsczi: Pòlsczi jãzëk
қазақша: Поляк тілі
kernowek: Polonek
Kiswahili: Kipoland
Кыргызча: Поляк тили
latviešu: Poļu valoda
Lëtzebuergesch: Polnesch
лезги: Поляк чIал
lietuvių: Lenkų kalba
Limburgs: Pools
Lingua Franca Nova: Polsce (lingua)
lumbaart: Lengua polacca
मैथिली: पोलिश भाषा
македонски: Полски јазик
Malagasy: Fiteny poloney
മലയാളം: പോളിഷ് ഭാഷ
Māori: Reo Pōrana
მარგალური: პოლონური ნინა
Bahasa Melayu: Bahasa Poland
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Pŏ̤-làng-ngṳ̄
мокшень: Полень кяль
монгол: Польш хэл
Dorerin Naoero: Dorerin Poran
Nederlands: Pools
Nedersaksies: Pools
नेपाल भाषा: पोलिश भाषा
Napulitano: Lengua pulacca
Nordfriisk: Poolsk spriak
Norfuk / Pitkern: Poelish
norsk: Polsk
norsk nynorsk: Polsk
occitan: Polonés
олык марий: Поляк йылме
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Polyak tili
پنجابی: پولی
Papiamentu: Polaco
Patois: Puolish
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ភាសាប៉ូឡូញ
Picard: Polonè
Piemontèis: Lenga polonèisa
Tok Pisin: Tok Polan
Plattdüütsch: Poolsche Spraak
português: Língua polaca
Qaraqalpaqsha: Polyak tili
qırımtatarca: Leh tili
română: Limba poloneză
Runa Simi: Pulaku simi
русиньскый: Польскый язык
саха тыла: Поляк тыла
Gagana Samoa: Fa'apolani
Scots: Pols leid
Seeltersk: Poolsk
sicilianu: Lingua pulacca
Simple English: Polish language
slovenčina: Poľština
slovenščina: Poljščina
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Пол҄ьскъ ѩꙁꙑкъ
ślůnski: Polsko godka
српски / srpski: Пољски језик
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Poljski jezik
svenska: Polska
Tagalog: Wikang Polako
татарча/tatarça: Поляк теле
tetun: Lia-polaku
Türkçe: Lehçe
тыва дыл: Поляк дыл
удмурт: Поляк кыл
українська: Польська мова
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: پولەك تىلى
vepsän kel’: Pol'šan kel'
Tiếng Việt: Tiếng Ba Lan
Volapük: Polänapük
Võro: Poola kiil
West-Vlams: Pools
Winaray: Pinolako
ייִדיש: פויליש
粵語: 波蘭文
Zazaki: Polonki
Zeêuws: Poôls
žemaitėška: Lėnku kalba
中文: 波兰语