Pole vault

Athletics
Pole vault
Pole Vault Sequence 3.jpg
An athlete in the middle of the vaulting phase
Men's records
WorldRenaud Lavillenie 6.16 m (20 ft 2 12 in) (2014)
OlympicThiago Braz da Silva 6.03 m (19 ft 9 14 in) (2016)
Women's records
WorldYelena Isinbayeva 5.06 m (16 ft 7 in) (2009)
OlympicYelena Isinbayeva 5.05 m (16 ft 6 34 in) (2008)

Pole vaulting is a track and field event in which a person uses a long flexible pole (which today is usually made either of fiberglass or carbon fiber) as an aid to jump over a bar. Pole jumping competitions were known to the ancient Greeks, Cretans and Celts. It has been a full medal event at the Olympic Games since 1896 for men and 2000 for women.

It is typically classified as one of the four major jumping events in athletics, alongside the high jump, long jump and triple jump. It is unusual among track and field sports in that it requires a significant amount of specialised equipment in order to participate, even at a basic level. A number of elite pole vaulters have had backgrounds in gymnastics, including world record breakers Yelena Isinbayeva and Brian Sternberg, reflecting the similar physical attributes required for the sports.[1][2] Running speed, however, may be the most dominant factor.

History

Pole vault in the 1890s at US Naval Academy
Traditional fierljeppen in the Netherlands, using poles to clear distances over rivers

Poles were used as a practical means of passing over natural obstacles in marshy places such as provinces of Friesland in the Netherlands, along the North Sea, and the great level of the Fens across Cambridgeshire, Huntingdonshire, Lincolnshire and Norfolk. Artificial draining of these marshes created a network of open drains or canals intersecting each other. To cross these without getting wet, while avoiding tedious roundabout journeys over bridges, a stack of jumping poles was kept at every house and used for vaulting over the canals. Venetian gondoliers have traditionally used punting poles for moving to the shore from their boat.[citation needed]

Distance pole vaulting competitions continue to be held annually in the lowlands around the North Sea. These far-jumping competitions (Frysk: Fierljeppen) are not based on height.[3]

In his book The Mechanics of the Pole Vault, Richard Ganslen reports that the London Gymnastic Society under Professor Voelker held measured pole vaulting events in 1826, involving 1,300 participants and recording heights up to 10 ft 10 in (3.3 m).[4] Other early pole vaulting competitions where height was measured took place at the Ulverston Football and Cricket Club, Lancashire, north of the sands (now Cumbria) in 1843.[5] Modern competition began around 1850 in Germany, when pole vaulting was added to the exercises of the Turner gymnastic clubs by Johann C. F. GutsMuths and Friedrich L. Jahn. In Great Britain, it was first practiced at the Caledonian Games.

Initially, vaulting poles were made from stiff materials such as bamboo or aluminum. The introduction of flexible vaulting poles in the early 1950s made from composites such as fiberglass or carbon fiber allowed vaulters to achieve greater height.[6] Physical attributes such as speed, agility and strength are essential to pole vaulting effectively, but technical skill is an equally if not more important element. The object of pole vaulting is to clear a bar or crossbar supported upon two uprights (standards) without knocking it down.

Pole vaulter Allison Stokke prepares for her jump

In 2000, IAAF rule 260.18a (formerly 260.6a) was amended, so that "world records" (as opposed to "indoor world records") can be set in a facility "with or without roof". This rule was not applied retroactively,[7] With many indoor facilities not conforming to outdoor track specifications for size and flatness, the pole vault is the only world record set indoors.

Other Languages
العربية: قفز بالزانة
বাংলা: পোল ভল্ট
català: Salt de perxa
čeština: Skok o tyči
Ελληνικά: Άλμα επί κοντώ
Esperanto: Stanga altsalto
euskara: Pertika jauzi
hrvatski: Skok s motkom
Bahasa Indonesia: Lompat galah
latviešu: Kārtslēkšana
magyar: Rúdugrás
Bahasa Melayu: Lombol galah
日本語: 棒高跳
norsk: Stavsprang
português: Salto com vara
русиньскый: Скок з тычов
संस्कृतम्: दण्डकूर्दनम्
Simple English: Pole vault
slovenčina: Skok o žrdi
slovenščina: Skok s palico
српски / srpski: Скок мотком
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Skok motkom
svenska: Stavhopp
Tiếng Việt: Nhảy sào
粵語: 撐竿跳高
中文: 撑杆跳高