Pickelhaube

Bavarian military Pickelhaube
Prussian police leather Pickelhaube

The Pickelhaube (plural Pickelhauben; from the German Pickel, "point" or "pickaxe", and Haube, "bonnet", a general word for "headgear"), also Pickelhelm, is a spiked helmet worn in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries by German military, firefighters, and police. Although typically associated with the Prussian Army, which adopted it in 1842–43,[1] the helmet was widely imitated by other armies during this period.[2] It is still worn today as part of ceremonial wear in the militaries of certain countries.

History

Origins

Otto von Bismarck wearing a cuirassier officer's metal Pickelhaube

The Pickelhaube was originally designed in 1842 by King Frederick William IV of Prussia,[3] perhaps as a copy of similar helmets that were adopted at the same time by the Russian military.[4] It is not clear whether this was a case of imitation, parallel invention, or if both were based on the earlier Napoleonic cuirassier. The early Russian type (known as "The Helmet of Yaroslav Mudry") was also used by cavalry, which had used the spike as a holder for a horsehair plume in full dress, a practice also followed with some Prussian models (see below).

Adoption

Prussian infantry Pickelhaube in 1845 (at right)

Frederick William IV introduced the Pickelhaube for use by the majority of Prussian infantry on 23 October 1842 by a royal cabinet order.[5] The use of the Pickelhaube spread rapidly to other German principalities. Oldenburg adopted it by 1849, Baden by 1870, and in 1887, the Kingdom of Bavaria was the last German state to adopt the Pickelhaube (since the Napoleonic Wars, they had had their own design of helmet, called the Raupenhelm [de], a Tarleton helmet). Amongst other European armies, that of Sweden adopted the Prussian version of the spiked helmet in 1845[6] and the Russian Army in 1846 [7]

From the second half of the 19th century onwards, the armies of a number of nations besides Russia (including Bolivia, Colombia, Chile, Ecuador, Mexico, Portugal, Norway, Sweden, and Venezuela) adopted the Pickelhaube or something very similar.[8] The popularity of this headdress in Latin America arose from a period during the early 20th century when military missions from Imperial Germany were widely employed to train and organize national armies. Peru was the first to use the helmet for the Peruvian Army when some helmets were shipped to the country in the 1870s, but during the War of the Pacific the 6th Infantry Regiment "Chacabuco" of the Chilean Army became the first Chilean military unit to use them when its personnel used the helmets—which were seized from the Peruvians—in their red French-inspired uniforms.[9] These sported the Imperial German eagles but in the 1900s the eagles were replaced by the national emblems of the countries that used them.

Tsarist Russian Pickelhauben, with detachable plumes, mid 19th century

The Russian version initially had a horsehair plume fitted to the end of the spike, but this was later discarded in some units. The Russian spike was topped with a grenade motif. At the beginning of the Crimean War, such helmets were common among infantry and grenadiers, but soon fell out of place in favour of the fatigue cap. After 1862 the spiked helmet ceased to be generally worn by the Russian Army, although it was retained until 1914 by the Cuirassier regiments of the Imperial Guard and the Gendarmerie. The Russians prolonged the history of the pointed military headgear with their own cloth Budenovka in the early 20th century.

Other Languages
العربية: بيكلهاوبه
беларуская: Пікельхельм
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Пікельхельм
català: Casc de punta
čeština: Pickelhaube
dansk: Pikkelhue
Deutsch: Pickelhaube
español: Pickelhaube
français: Casque à pointe
한국어: 피켈하우베
italiano: Pickelhaube
עברית: פיקלהאובה
Nederlands: Pickelhaube
norsk: Pigghjelm
polski: Pikielhauba
português: Pickelhaube
русский: Пикельхельм
svenska: Pickelhuva
Türkçe: Pickelhaube
українська: Пікельгаубе
中文: 釘盔