Albert Einstein, a key theoretical physicist in the 20th century who developed the theory of relativity and parts of early quantum theory.

A physicist is a scientist who specializes in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe.[1][2]Physicists generally are interested in the root or ultimate causes of phenomena, and usually frame their understanding in mathematical terms.Physicists work across a wide range of research fields, spanning all length scales: from sub-atomic and particle physics, through biological physics, to cosmological length scales encompassing the universe as a whole.The field generally includes two types of physicists: experimental physicists who specialize in the observation of physical phenomena and the analysis of experiments, and theoretical physicists who specialize in mathematical modeling of physical systems to rationalize, explain and predict natural phenomena.[1]Physicists can apply their knowledge towards solving practical problems or to developing new technologies (also known as applied physics or engineering physics).[3][4][5]


In an 18th-century experiment in "natural philosophy" (later to be called "physics") English scientist Francis Hauksbee works with an early electrostatic generator.

The study and practice of physics is based on an intellectual ladder of discoveries and insights from ancient times to the present. Many mathematical and physical ideas used today found their earliest expression in the work of ancient civilizations, such as the Babylonian astronomers and Egyptian engineers, the Phoenician scholar Thales of Miletus, Euclid in Ptolemaic Egypt, and the Greek writers Archimedes and Aristarchus. Roots also emerged in ancient Asian cultures such as India and China, and particularly the Islamic medieval period, which saw the development of scientific methodology emphasising experimentation, such as the work of Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) in the 11th century, for example. The modern scientific worldview and the bulk of physics education can be said to flow from the scientific revolution in Europe, starting with the work of Galileo Galilei and Johannes Kepler in the early 1600s. Newton's laws of motion and Newton's law of universal gravitation were formulated in the 17th century. The experimental discoveries of Faraday and the theory of Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism were developmental high points during the 19th century. Many physicists contributed to the development of quantum mechanics in the early-to-mid 20th century. New knowledge in the early 21st century includes a large increase in understanding physical cosmology.

The broad and general study of nature, natural philosophy, was divided into several fields in the 19th century, when the concept of "science" received its modern shape. Specific categories emerged, such as "biology" and "biologist", "physics" and "physicist", "chemistry" and "chemist", among other technical fields and titles.[6] The term physicist was coined by William Whewell (also the originator of the term "scientist") in his 1840 book The Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences.[7]

Other Languages
Alemannisch: Physiker
العربية: فيزيائي
azərbaycanca: Fizik
Basa Banyumasan: Fisikawan
беларуская: Фізік
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Фізык
български: Физик
bosanski: Fizičar
català: Físic
dansk: Fysiker
Deutsch: Physiker
eesti: Füüsik
Ελληνικά: Φυσικός
español: Físico
Esperanto: Fizikisto
français: Physicien
Gaeilge: Fisiceoir
galego: Físico
한국어: 물리학자
հայերեն: Ֆիզիկոս
hrvatski: Fizičar
Bahasa Indonesia: Fisikawan
interlingua: Physico
italiano: Fisico
עברית: פיזיקאי
Jawa: Fisikawan
қазақша: Физик
kurdî: Fizîknas
Latina: Physicus
latviešu: Fiziķis
Lëtzebuergesch: Physiker
Limburgs: Natuurkundige
magyar: Fizikus
македонски: Физичар
Malagasy: Mpahay fizika
Bahasa Melayu: Ahli fizik
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Ŭk-lī-hŏk-gă
日本語: 物理学者
norsk: Fysiker
norsk nynorsk: Fysikar
occitan: Fisician
ភាសាខ្មែរ: រូបវិទូ
polski: Fizyk
português: Físico
Qaraqalpaqsha: Fizik
română: Fizician
русский: Физик
саха тыла: Физик
Scots: Pheesicist
shqip: Fizikanti
Simple English: Physicist
slovenčina: Fyzik
slovenščina: Fizik
کوردی: فیزیکزان
српски / srpski: Физичар
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Fizičar
suomi: Fyysikko
svenska: Fysiker
тоҷикӣ: Физикдон
Türkçe: Fizikçi
українська: Фізик
Tiếng Việt: Nhà vật lý
ייִדיש: פיזיקער
粵語: 物理學家
中文: 物理学家