Phonological history of English

The phonological history of English describes the changing phonology of the English language over time, starting from its roots in proto-Germanic to diverse changes in different dialects of modern English.

Abbreviations

In the following description, abbreviations are used as follows:

  • C = any consonant
  • V = any vowel
  • # = end of word
  • * = reconstructed
  • ** = non-existent
  • > = changes into
  • >! = changes into, unexpectedly
  • < = is derived from
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