Phonetics

Phonetics (pronounced s/) is a branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.[1] It is concerned with the physical properties of speech sounds or signs (phones): their physiological production, acoustic properties, auditory perception, and neurophysiological status. Phonology, on the other hand, is concerned with the abstract, grammatical characterization of systems of sounds or signs.

In the case of oral languages, phonetics has three basic areas of study:

History

The first known phonetic studies were carried out as early as the 6th century BCE by Sanskrit grammarians.[3] The Hindu scholar Pāṇini is among the most well known of these early investigators, whose four part grammar, written around 350 BCE, is influential in modern linguistics and still represents "the most complete generative grammar of any language yet written".[4] His grammar formed the basis of modern linguistics and described a number of important phonetic principles. Pāṇini provided an account of the phonetics of voicing, describing resonance as being produced either by tone, when vocal folds are closed, or noise, when vocal folds are open. The phonetic principles in the grammar are considered "primitives" in that they are the basis for his theoretical analysis rather than the objects of theoretical analysis themselves, and the principles can be inferred from his system of phonology.[5]

Advancements in phonetics after Pāṇini and his contemporaries were limited until the modern era, save some limited investigations by Greek and Roman grammarians. In the millenia between Indic grammarians and modern phonetics the focus of phonetics shifted from the difference between spoken and written language, which was the driving force behind Pāṇini's account, and began to focus on the physical properties of speech alone. Sustained interest in phonetics began again around 1800 CE with the term "phonetics" being first used in the present sense in 1841.[6][3] With new developments in medicine and the development of audio and visual recording devices, phonetic insights were able to use and review new and more detailed data. This early period of modern phonetics included the development of an influential phonetic alphabet based on articulatory positions by Alexander Melville Bell. Known as visible speech, it gained prominency as a tool in the oral education of deaf children.[3]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Fonetiek
العربية: صوتيات
aragonés: Fonetica
asturianu: Fonética
azərbaycanca: Fonetika
беларуская: Фанетыка
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Фанэтыка
български: Фонетика
bosanski: Fonetika
brezhoneg: Fonetik
català: Fonètica
Чӑвашла: Фонетика
Cebuano: Ponetika
čeština: Fonetika
Cymraeg: Seineg
dansk: Fonetik
Deutsch: Phonetik
eesti: Foneetika
Ελληνικά: Φωνητική
эрзянь: Фонетика
español: Fonética
Esperanto: Fonetiko
euskara: Fonetika
فارسی: آواشناسی
føroyskt: Ljóðfrøði
français: Phonétique
Frysk: Fonetyk
galego: Fonética
한국어: 음성학
hrvatski: Fonetika
Bahasa Indonesia: Fonetik
interlingua: Phonetica
isiXhosa: Ifonetiki
isiZulu: Ifonetiki
íslenska: Hljóðfræði
italiano: Fonetica
עברית: פונטיקה
ქართული: ფონეტიკა
қазақша: Фонетика
Kiswahili: Fonetiki
kurdî: Denganî
Кыргызча: Фонетика
Latina: Phonetica
latviešu: Fonētika
Lëtzebuergesch: Phonetik
lietuvių: Fonetika
Limburgs: Fonetiek
Lingua Franca Nova: Fonetica
la .lojban.: voksnaske
lumbaart: Funetica
magyar: Fonetika
македонски: Фонетика
Bahasa Melayu: Fonetik
Nederlands: Fonetiek
日本語: 音声学
norsk: Fonetikk
norsk nynorsk: Fonetikk
Novial: Fonetike
олык марий: Йӱклончыш
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Fonetika
پنجابی: فونیٹکس
polski: Fonetyka
português: Fonética
română: Fonetică
русский: Фонетика
Scots: Phonetics
Seeltersk: Phonetik
shqip: Fonetika
sicilianu: Funètica
Simple English: Phonetics
slovenčina: Fonetika
slovenščina: Fonetika
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Фѡнитїка
српски / srpski: Фонетика
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Fonetika
suomi: Fonetiikka
svenska: Fonetik
Tagalog: Palabigkasan
татарча/tatarça: Фонетика
Türkçe: Ses bilgisi
Türkmençe: Fonetika
українська: Фонетика
اردو: صوتیات
vepsän kel’: Fonetik
Tiếng Việt: Ngữ âm học
Winaray: Fonetika
ייִדיש: פאנעטיק
粵語: 語音學
中文: 语音学