Phonetics

Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.[1] It is concerned with the physical properties of speech sounds or signs (phones): their physiological production, acoustic properties, auditory perception, and neurophysiological status.

Phonetics as a research discipline has three main branches:[2]

Phonetic insight is used in several applied linguistic fields such as:

Phonology, on the other hand, is concerned with the abstract, grammatical characterization of systems of sounds or signs and how they pattern in and across languages. Phonology has been argued to relate to phonetics via the set of distinctive features, which map the abstract representations of speech units to articulatory gestures, acoustic signals or perceptual representations.[4][5][6]

History

The first known phonetic studies were carried out as early as the 6th century BCE by Sanskrit grammarians.[7] The Hindu scholar Pāṇini is among the most well known of these early investigators, whose four-part grammar, written around 350 BCE, is influential in modern linguistics and still represents "the most complete generative grammar of any language yet written".[8] His grammar formed the basis of modern linguistics and described several important phonetic principles, including voicing. This early account described resonance as being produced either by tone, when vocal folds are closed, or noise, when vocal folds are open. The phonetic principles in the grammar are considered "primitives" in that they are the basis for his theoretical analysis rather than the objects of theoretical analysis themselves, and the principles can be inferred from his system of phonology.[9]

Advancements in phonetics after Pāṇini and his contemporaries were limited until the modern era, save some limited investigations by Greek and Roman grammarians. In the millennia between Indic grammarians and modern phonetics, the focus shifted from the difference between spoken and written language, which was the driving force behind Pāṇini's account, and began to focus on the physical properties of speech alone. Sustained interest in phonetics began again around 1800 CE with the term "phonetics" being first used in the present sense in 1841.[10][7] With new developments in medicine and the development of audio and visual recording devices, phonetic insights were able to use and review new and more detailed data. This early period of modern phonetics included the development of an influential phonetic alphabet based on articulatory positions by Alexander Melville Bell. Known as visible speech, it gained prominence as a tool in the oral education of deaf children.[7]

Before the widespread availability of audio recording equipment, phoneticians relied heavily on a tradition of practical phonetics to ensure that transcriptions and findings were able to be consistent across phoneticians. This training involved both ear training—the recognition of speech sounds—as well as production training—the ability to produce sounds. Phoneticians were expected to learn to recognize by ear the various sounds on the International Phonetic Alphabet and the IPA still tests and certifies speakers on their ability to accurately produce the phonetic patterns of English (though they have discontinued this practice for other languages).[11] As a revision of his visible speech method, Melville Bell developed a description of vowels by height and backness resulting in 9 cardinal vowels.[12] As part of their training in practical phonetics, phoneticians were expected to learn to produce these cardinal vowels in order to anchor their perception and transcription of these phones during fieldwork.[11] This approach was critiqued by Peter Ladefoged in the 1960s based on experimental evidence where he found that cardinal vowels were auditory rather than articulatory targets, challenging the claim that they represented articulatory anchors by which phoneticians could judge other articulations.[13]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Fonetiek
العربية: صوتيات
aragonés: Fonetica
asturianu: Fonética
azərbaycanca: Fonetika
башҡортса: Фонетика
беларуская: Фанетыка
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Фанэтыка
български: Фонетика
bosanski: Fonetika
brezhoneg: Fonetik
català: Fonètica
Чӑвашла: Фонетика
Cebuano: Ponetika
čeština: Fonetika
Cymraeg: Seineg
dansk: Fonetik
Deutsch: Phonetik
eesti: Foneetika
Ελληνικά: Φωνητική
эрзянь: Фонетика
español: Fonética
Esperanto: Fonetiko
euskara: Fonetika
فارسی: آواشناسی
føroyskt: Ljóðfrøði
français: Phonétique
Frysk: Fonetyk
galego: Fonética
ГӀалгӀай: Фонетика
한국어: 음성학
hrvatski: Fonetika
Bahasa Indonesia: Fonetik
interlingua: Phonetica
isiXhosa: Ifonetiki
isiZulu: Ifonetiki
íslenska: Hljóðfræði
italiano: Fonetica
עברית: פונטיקה
ქართული: ფონეტიკა
қазақша: Фонетика
Kiswahili: Fonetiki
Kreyòl ayisyen: Fonetik
kurdî: Denganî
Кыргызча: Фонетика
Latina: Phonetica
latviešu: Fonētika
Lëtzebuergesch: Phonetik
lietuvių: Fonetika
Limburgs: Fonetiek
Lingua Franca Nova: Fonetica
la .lojban.: voksnaske
lumbaart: Funetica
magyar: Fonetika
македонски: Фонетика
Bahasa Melayu: Fonetik
Nederlands: Fonetiek
日本語: 音声学
norsk: Fonetikk
norsk nynorsk: Fonetikk
Novial: Fonetike
олык марий: Йӱклончыш
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Fonetika
پنجابی: فونیٹکس
polski: Fonetyka
português: Fonética
română: Fonetică
русиньскый: Фонетика
русский: Фонетика
Scots: Phonetics
Seeltersk: Phonetik
shqip: Fonetika
sicilianu: Funètica
Simple English: Phonetics
slovenčina: Fonetika
slovenščina: Fonetika
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Фѡнитїка
српски / srpski: Фонетика
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Fonetika
suomi: Fonetiikka
svenska: Fonetik
Tagalog: Palabigkasan
татарча/tatarça: Фонетика
Türkçe: Ses bilgisi
Türkmençe: Fonetika
українська: Фонетика
اردو: صوتیات
vèneto: Fonetega
vepsän kel’: Fonetik
Tiếng Việt: Ngữ âm học
Winaray: Fonetika
ייִדיש: פאנעטיק
粵語: 語音學
中文: 语音学