Philosophy

The School of Athens (1509–1511) by Raphael, depicting famous classical Greek philosophers in an idealized setting inspired by ancient Greek architecture

Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom"[1][2][3][4]) is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.[5][6] The term was probably coined by Pythagoras (c. 570–495 BCE). Philosophical methods include questioning, critical discussion, rational argument, and systematic presentation.[7][8] Classic philosophical questions include: Is it possible to know anything and to prove it?[9][10][11] What is most real? Philosophers also pose more practical and concrete questions such as: Is there a best way to live? Is it better to be just or unjust (if one can get away with it)?[12] Do humans have free will?[13]

Historically, "philosophy" encompassed any body of knowledge.[14] From the time of Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle to the 19th century, "natural philosophy" encompassed astronomy, medicine, and physics.[15] For example, Newton's 1687 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy later became classified as a book of physics. In the 19th century, the growth of modern research universities led academic philosophy and other disciplines to professionalize and specialize.[16][17] In the modern era, some investigations that were traditionally part of philosophy became separate academic disciplines, including psychology, sociology, linguistics, and economics.

Other investigations closely related to art, science, politics, or other pursuits remained part of philosophy. For example, is beauty objective or subjective?[18][19] Are there many scientific methods or just one?[20] Is political utopia a hopeful dream or hopeless fantasy?[21][22][23] Major sub-fields of academic philosophy include metaphysics ("concerned with the fundamental nature of reality and being"),[24] epistemology (about the "nature and grounds of knowledge [and]...its limits and validity" [25]), ethics, aesthetics, political philosophy, logic and philosophy of science.

Since the 20th century, professional philosophers contribute to society primarily as academics. However, many of those who study philosophy in undergraduate or graduate programs contribute in the fields of law, journalism, politics, religion, science, business and various art and entertainment activities.[26]

Introduction

Knowledge

Traditionally, the term "philosophy" referred to any body of knowledge.[14][27] In this sense, philosophy is closely related to religion, mathematics, natural science, education and politics. Newton's 1687 "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy" is classified in the 2000s as a book of physics; he used the term "natural philosophy" because it used to encompass disciplines that later became associated with sciences such as astronomy, medicine and physics.[15]

In the first part of the first book of his Academics, Cicero introduced the division of philosophy into logic, physics, and ethics; in section thirteen of the first book of his Lives and Opinions of the Eminent Philosophers, the 3rd-century Diogenes Laërtius, the first historian of philosophy, established the traditional division of philosophical inquiry into three parts:

  • Natural philosophy ("physics," from ta physika, "things having to do with nature (physis)" was the study of the constitution and processes of transformation in the physical world;
  • Moral philosophy ("ethics," from êthika, literally, "having to do with character, disposition, manners") was the study of goodness, right and wrong, justice and virtue.
  • Metaphysical philosophy ("logic") was the study of existence, causation, God, logic, forms and other abstract objects ("meta ta physika" lit: "After [the book] the Physics").[28]

This division is not obsolete but has changed. Natural philosophy has split into the various natural sciences, especially astronomy, physics, chemistry, biology, and cosmology. Moral philosophy has birthed the social sciences, but still includes value theory (including aesthetics, ethics, political philosophy, etc.). Metaphysical philosophy has birthed formal sciences such as logic, mathematics and philosophy of science, but still includes epistemology, cosmology and others.

Philosophical progress

Many philosophical debates that began in ancient times are still debated today. Colin McGinn and others claim that no philosophical progress has occurred during that interval.[29] Chalmers and others, by contrast, see progress in philosophy similar to that in science,[30] while Talbot Brewer argued that "progress" is the wrong standard by which to judge philosophical activity.[31]

Other Languages
Acèh: Kalam
Afrikaans: Filosofie
Alemannisch: Philosophie
አማርኛ: ፍልስፍና
Ænglisc: Ūðwitegung
العربية: فلسفة
aragonés: Filosofía
armãneashti: Filosofia
অসমীয়া: দৰ্শন
asturianu: Filosofía
Avañe'ẽ: Arandupykuaaty
Aymar aru: Lup'intawi
azərbaycanca: Fəlsəfə
تۆرکجه: فلسفه
বাংলা: দর্শন
Bân-lâm-gú: Tiat-ha̍k
башҡортса: Фәлсәфә
беларуская: Філасофія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Філязофія
भोजपुरी: दर्शन
Bislama: Filosofi
български: Философия
Boarisch: Philosophie
bosanski: Filozofija
brezhoneg: Prederouriezh
буряад: Гүн ухаан
català: Filosofia
Чӑвашла: Философи
Cebuano: Pilosopiya
čeština: Filosofie
corsu: Filosofia
Cymraeg: Athroniaeth
dansk: Filosofi
Deutsch: Philosophie
eesti: Filosoofia
Ελληνικά: Φιλοσοφία
español: Filosofía
Esperanto: Filozofio
estremeñu: Filosofia
euskara: Filosofia
فارسی: فلسفه
Fiji Hindi: Philosophy
føroyskt: Heimspeki
français: Philosophie
Frysk: Filosofy
furlan: Filosofie
Gaeilge: Fealsúnacht
Gaelg: Fallsoonys
Gàidhlig: Feallsanachd
galego: Filosofía
贛語: 哲學
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Chet-ho̍k
한국어: 철학
Hausa: Falsafa
hrvatski: Filozofija
Ilokano: Pilosopia
Bahasa Indonesia: Filsafat
interlingua: Philosophia
Interlingue: Filosofie
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᐃᓱᒪᓕᐅᕐᓂᖅ
isiXhosa: Ifilosofi
isiZulu: IFilosofi
íslenska: Heimspeki
italiano: Filosofia
עברית: פילוסופיה
Basa Jawa: Filsafat
Kabɩyɛ: Filozofii
ქართული: ფილოსოფია
kaszëbsczi: Filozofijô
қазақша: Философия
Kinyarwanda: Filozofi
Kiswahili: Falsafa
Kreyòl ayisyen: Filozofi
kurdî: Felsefe
Кыргызча: Философия
Ladino: Filosofia
Latina: Philosophia
latviešu: Filozofija
Lëtzebuergesch: Philosophie
лезги: Философия
lietuvių: Filosofija
Ligure: Filozofîa
Limburgs: Filosofie
Lingua Franca Nova: Filosofia
Livvinkarjala: Filosoufii
la .lojban.: pijyske
lumbaart: Filusufia
magyar: Filozófia
मैथिली: दर्शन
македонски: Филозофија
Malagasy: Filôzôfia
Malti: Filosofija
მარგალური: ფილოსოფია
مصرى: فلسفه
مازِرونی: فلسفه
Bahasa Melayu: Falsafah
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Diék-hŏk
Mirandés: Filosofie
монгол: Гүн ухаан
မြန်မာဘာသာ: သဘာဝတ္ထဗေဒ
Nederlands: Filosofie
Nedersaksies: Filesefie
नेपाली: दर्शन
नेपाल भाषा: दर्शन
日本語: 哲学
нохчийн: Философи
Nordfriisk: Filosofii
norsk: Filosofi
norsk nynorsk: Filosofi
Nouormand: Philosophie
Novial: Filosofia
occitan: Filosofia
олык марий: Философий
Oromoo: Falaasama
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Falsafa
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਦਰਸ਼ਨ
Pälzisch: Philosophie
پنجابی: فلاسفی
Papiamentu: Filosofia
پښتو: فلسفه
Patois: Filasafi
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ទស្សនវិជ្ជា
Picard: Filosofie
Piemontèis: Filosofìa
Tok Pisin: Pilosopi
Plattdüütsch: Philosophie
polski: Filozofia
Ποντιακά: Φιλοσοφία
português: Filosofia
Qaraqalpaqsha: Filosofiya
română: Filozofie
rumantsch: Filosofia
Runa Simi: Yachay wayllukuy
русиньскый: Філозофія
русский: Философия
саха тыла: Философия
संस्कृतम्: तत्त्वज्ञानम्
Sängö: Sêndândarä
sardu: Filosofia
Scots: Filosofie
Seeltersk: Philosophie
Sesotho: Filosofi
shqip: Filozofia
sicilianu: Filusufìa
සිංහල: දර්ශනය
Simple English: Philosophy
slovenčina: Filozofia
slovenščina: Filozofija
Soomaaliga: Filasoofiyada
کوردی: فەلسەفە
Sranantongo: Sabi fu denki
српски / srpski: Филозофија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Filozofija
Basa Sunda: Filsafat
suomi: Filosofia
svenska: Filosofi
Tagalog: Pilosopiya
Taqbaylit: Tafelsuft
татарча/tatarça: Фәлсәфә
తెలుగు: తత్వము
тоҷикӣ: Фалсафа
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ
Türkçe: Felsefe
Türkmençe: Filosofiýa
тыва дыл: Философия
українська: Філософія
اردو: فلسفہ
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: پەلسەپە
Vahcuengh: Cwzyoz
vèneto: Fiłoxofìa
Tiếng Việt: Triết học
Volapük: Filosop
Võro: Filosoofia
walon: Filozofeye
文言: 哲學
Winaray: Filosofiya
Wolof: Xeltu
吴语: 哲學
Xitsonga: Filosofi
ייִדיש: פילאסאפיע
Yorùbá: Ìmòye
粵語: 哲學
Zazaki: Felsefe
Zeêuws: Filosofie
žemaitėška: Filosuopėjė
中文: 哲学