Philippine revolts against Spain

During the Spanish colonial period in the Philippines, 1521–1898, there were several revolts against the Spanish colonial government by indigenous Moro, Lumad, Indians, Chinese (Sangleys) and Insulares (Mestizos), often with the goal of re-establishing the rights and powers that had traditionally belonged to Lumad Timueys, Maginoo Rajah and Moro Datus. Some revolts stemmed from land problem and this was largely the cause of the insurrections that transpired in the agricultural provinces of Batangas, Bulacan, Cavite, and Laguna.[1] Natives also rebelled over unjust taxation and forced labor.

Most of these revolts failed because the majority of the local population sided up with the well armed colonial government, and to fight with Spanish as foot soldiers to put down the revolts.[citation needed]

In Mindanao and Sulu, a continuous fight for sovereignty was sustained by the Moro people and their allies for the whole duration of Spanish conquest and rule.[citation needed]

16th century

Dagami Revolt (1565–1567)

The Dagami Revolt' was a revolt led by the Dagami family who came from the island of Leyte in 1567.[2] This involved a group of 16 led by Dagami, who was the chieftain of Gabi (part of the present-day town of Palo).[3] The insurrection was short-lived and mainly involved the assassinations of Spanish soldiers. The first incident took place on May 23, 1565 in Cebu where the group ambushed Pedro de Arana, who was an aide to Miguel López de Legazpi, the Spanish Governor of the Philippines. Dagami led a series of attacks, which baffled authorities for a time. By December 1566, Legazpi finally summoned the local datus and forced them to identify who the culprits were after two more Spaniards died of poisoning. Dagami was captured and executed where de Arana was killed.

Lakandula and Sulayman Revolt (1574)

The Lakandula and Sulayman Revolt, also known as the Tagalog Revolt, was an uprising in 1574 by Lakandula and Rajah Sulayman in Tondo, Manila. The revolt occurred in the same year as the Chinese pirate Limahong attacked the palisaded yet poorly defended enclosure of Intramuros. This revolt was caused by losing Soliman and Lakandula's kingdom when they were defeated by Miguel Lopez de Legazpi to accept the Spanish sovereignty on the promise that they would be well-treated by the Spaniards and would still retain some of their royal and political powers. When Guido de Lavezaris replaced Legaspi as Governor General of the Philippines, he revoked their exemptions from paying tribute and confiscated their lands. Father Martin convinced Lakandula and Soliman to abort the revolt and promised to grant their privileges. Nevertheless, Soliman continued his revolt which was brutally crushed in 1574.

Pampanga Revolt (1585)

The Pampanga Revolt was an uprising in 1585 by some native Kapampangan leaders who resented the Spanish landowners, or encomenderos who had deprived them of their historical land inheritances as tribal chiefs or Datus. The revolt included a plot to storm Intramuros, but the conspiracy was foiled before it could begin after a Filipino woman married to a Spanish soldier reported the plot to the Spanish authorities. Spanish and Filipino colonial troops were sent by Governor-General Santiago de Vera, and the leaders of the revolt were arrested and summarily executed by Christian Cruz-Herrera.

Conspiracy of the Maharlikas (1587–1588)

The Conspiracy of the Maharlikas, or the Tondo Conspiracy, of 1587–1588, was a plot by the kin-related noblemen, or datus, of Manila and some towns of Bulacan and Pampanga. It was led by Agustin de Legazpi, nephew of Lakandula, and his first cousin, Martin Pangan. The datus swore to revolt. The uprising failed when they were denounced to the Spanish authorities by Antonio Surabao (Susabau) of Calamianes, in Palawan.[4]

Revolts Against the Tribute (1589)

The Cagayan and Dingras Revolts Against the Tribute occurred on Luzon in the present-day provinces of Cagayan and Ilocos Norte in 1589. Ilocanos, Ibanags and other Filipinos revolted against alleged abuses by the tax collectors, including the collection of high taxes. It began when six tax collectors who had arrived from Vigan were killed by the natives. Governor-General Santiago de Vera sent Spanish and Filipino colonial troops to pacify the rebels. The rebels were eventually pardoned and the Philippine tax system reformed.[5][6]

Magalat Revolt (1596)

The Magalat Revolt was an uprising in 1596, led by Magalat, a rebel from Cagayan. He had been arrested in Manila for inciting rebellion against the Spanish. He was later released after some urging by some Dominican priests, and returned to Cagayan. Together with his brother, he urged the entire country to revolt. He was said to have committed atrocities against his fellow natives for refusing to rise up against the Spaniards. He soon controlled the countryside, and the Spanish eventually found themselves besieged. The Spanish Governor-General Francisco de Tello de Guzmán sent Pedro de Chaves from Manila with Spanish and Filipino colonial troops. They fought successfully against the rebels, and captured and executed several leaders under Magalat. Magalat himself was assassinated within his fortified headquarters by his own men.[7]