Peru ( / (; Spanish: ) listen Perú ; [peˈɾu] : Quechua Piruw Republika ; [pʰɪɾʊw]  : Aymara Piruw Suyu ), officially the [pɪɾʊw] Republic of Peru ( : Spanish · República del Perú ( help )), is a country in western info . It is bordered in the north by South America and Ecuador , in the east by Colombia , in the southeast by Brazil , in the south by Bolivia , and in the west by the Chile . Peru is a Pacific Ocean with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the megadiverse country vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Andes mountains rainforest in the east with the Amazon Basin . Amazon river  was home to several Peruvian territory . Ranging from the ancient cultures in the 32nd century BC, the oldest civilization in the Americas and one of the five Norte Chico civilization , to the cradles of civilization , the largest state in Inca Empire America, the territory now including Peru has one of the longest histories of civilization of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 4th millennia BCE. pre-Columbian
conquered the region in the 16th century and Spanish Empire that encompassed most of its South American colonies, with its capital in established a viceroyalty . Peru formally proclaimed independence in 1821, and following the military campaigns of Lima and José de San Martín , and the decisive Simón Bolívar , Peru battle of Ayacucho . In the ensuing years, the country enjoyed relative complete its independence in 1824 , which ended shortly before the economic and political stability with Chile. Throughout the 20th century, Peru endured armed territorial disputes, coups, social unrest, and War of the Pacific , as well as periods of stability and economic upswing. internal conflicts was elected to the presidency in 1990; his government was credited with economically stabilizing Peru and successfully ending the Alberto Fujimori insurgency, though he was widely accused of Shining Path and suppression of political dissent. Fujimori left the presidency in 2000 and was charged with human rights violations and imprisoned until his pardon by President human rights violations in 2017. Even after the president's regime, Fujimori's followers, called Pedro Pablo Kuczynski , have caused political turmoil for any opposing faction in power, even causing Pedro Pablo Kuczynski to resign in March 2018. Fujimoristas
of Peru is a sovereign state republic divided into representative democratic . It is classified as an 25 regions emerging market with a high level of  human development and an upper middle income level  with a poverty rate around 19 percent.  It is one of the region's most prosperous economies with an average growth rate of 5.9%  and it has one of the world's fastest industrial growth rates at an average of 9.6%.  Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing, agriculture and fishing; along with other growing sectors such as telecommunications and  . biotechnology The country forms part of  , a political and economic grouping of countries along Latin America's Pacific coast that share common trends of positive growth, stable macroeconomic foundations, improved governance and an openness to global integration. Peru ranks high in The Pacific Pumas ; social freedom it is an active member of the  , the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation , the Pacific Alliance and the Trans-Pacific Partnership ; and is considered as a World Trade Organization . middle power 
Peru has a population of 32 million,
which includes  , Amerindians , Europeans and Africans . The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Asians or other Quechua . This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music. indigenous languages
The name of the country may be derived from
Birú, the name of a local ruler who lived near the , Bay of San Miguel , in the early 16th century. Panama City When his possessions were visited by Spanish explorers in 1522, they were the southernmost part of the New World yet known to Europeans.  Thus, when  explored the regions farther south, they came to be designated Francisco Pizarro Birú or Perú.
An alternative history is provided by the contemporary writer
, son of an Inca princess and a Inca Garcilaso de la Vega . He said the name conquistador Birú was that of a common Indian happened upon by the crew of a ship on an exploratory mission for governor , and went on to relate more instances of misunderstandings due to the lack of a common language. Pedro Arias de Ávila
gave the name legal status with the 1529 Spanish Crown , which designated the newly encountered Capitulación de Toledo as the province of Peru. Inca Empire Under Spanish rule, the country adopted the denomination  , which became Republic of Peru after Viceroyalty of Peru .
Chavacano de Zamboanga:
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni:
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски:
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: