Persian language

  • persian
    فارسی (fārsi), форсӣ (forsī)
    farsi.svg
    fārsi written in persian calligraphy (nastaʿlīq)
    pronunciation[fɒːɾˈsiː] (about this soundlisten)
    native to
    • iran[1]
    • afghanistan[1] (as dari)
    • tajikistan[1] (as tajik)
    • uzbekistan (as tajik)
    • iraq[2]
    • russia[3][4]
    • azerbaijan[5]
    native speakers
    70 million[6]
    (110 million total speakers)[5]
    language family
    indo-european
    • indo-iranian
      • iranian
        • western iranian
          • southwestern iranian
            • persian
    early forms
    old persian
    • middle persian
    standard forms
    iranian persian
    dari
    tajik
    dialects
    • iranian persian
    • dari
    • tajik
    • bukhori
    • pahlavani
    • hazaragi
    • aimaq
    • judeo-persian
    • dehwari
    • judeo-tat[5]
    • caucasian tat[5]
    • armeno-tat[5]
    writing system
    • persian alphabet (iran and afghanistan)
    • tajik alphabet (tajikistan)
    • hebrew alphabet
    • persian braille
    official status
    official language in
    •  iran (as persian)[7]
    •  afghanistan (as dari)
    •  tajikistan (as tajik)
    regulated by
    • academy of persian language and literature (iran)
    language codes
    fa
    fas (t)
    iso 639-3fas – inclusive code
    individual codes:
    pes – iranian persian
    prs – dari
    tgk – tajik
    aiq – aimaq dialect
    bhh – bukhori dialect
    haz – hazaragi dialect
    jpr – judeo-persian
    phv – pahlavani
    deh – dehwari
    jdt – judeo-tat
    ttt – caucasian tat
    fars1254[8]
    linguasphere
    58-aac (wider persian)
    > 58-aac-c (central persian)
    persian language location map1.png
    areas with significant numbers of persian speakers (including dialects)
    iran, afghanistan and tajikistan.svg
      countries where persian is an official language
    this article contains ipa phonetic symbols. without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of unicode characters. for an introductory guide on ipa symbols, see help:ipa.

    persian (ən/), also known by its endonym farsi (فارسی, fārsi, [fɒːɾˈsiː] (about this soundlisten)), is a western iranian language belonging to the iranian branch of the indo-iranian subdivision of the indo-european languages. it is a pluricentric language predominantly spoken and used officially within iran, afghanistan and tajikistan in three mutually intelligible standard varieties, namely iranian persian, dari persian (officially named dari since 1958)[9] and tajiki persian (officially named tajik since the soviet era).[10] it is also spoken natively in the tajik variety by a significant population within uzbekistan,[11][12][13] as well as within other regions with a persianate history in the cultural sphere of greater iran. it is written officially within iran and afghanistan in the persian alphabet, a derivation of the arabic script, and within tajikistan in the tajik alphabet, a derivation of cyrillic.

    the persian language is a continuation of middle persian, the official religious and literary language of the sasanian empire (224–651 ce), itself a continuation of old persian, which was used in the achaemenid empire (550–330 bc).[14][15] it originated in the region of fars (persia) in southwestern iran.[16] its grammar is similar to that of many european languages.[17]

    throughout history, persian has been a prestigious cultural language used by various empires in western asia, central asia, and south asia.[18] old persian written works are attested in old persian cuneiform on several inscriptions from between the 6th and the 4th centuries bc, and middle persian literature is attested in aramaic-derived scripts (pahlavi and manichaean) on inscriptions from the time of the parthian empire and in books centered in zoroastrian and manichaean scriptures from between the 3rd to the 10th century ad. new persian literature began to flourish after the arab conquest of iran with its earliest records from the 9th century, since then adopting the arabic script.[19] persian was the first language to break through the monopoly of arabic on writing in the muslim world, with the writing of persian poetry developed as a court tradition in many eastern courts.[18] some of the famous works of medieval persian literature are the shahnameh of ferdowsi, the works of rumi, the rubaiyat of omar khayyam, the panj ganj of nizami ganjavi, the divān of hafez, the conference of the birds by attar of nishapur, and the miscellanea of gulistan and bustan by saadi shirazi.

    persian has left a considerable influence on its neighboring languages, including other iranian languages, the turkic languages, armenian, georgian and the indo-aryan languages (especially urdu). it also exerted some influence on arabic, particularly bahrani arabic,[20] while borrowing some vocabulary from it under medieval arab rule.[14][17][21][22][23][24]

    there are approximately 110 million persian speakers worldwide, including persians, tajiks, hazaras, caucasian tats and aimaqs. the term persophone might also be used to refer to a speaker of persian.[25][26]

  • classification
  • name
  • history
  • varieties
  • phonology
  • grammar
  • vocabulary
  • orthography
  • examples
  • see also
  • references
  • sources
  • further reading
  • external links

Persian
فارسی (fārsi), форсӣ (forsī)
Farsi.svg
Fārsi written in Persian calligraphy (Nastaʿlīq)
Pronunciation[fɒːɾˈsiː] (About this soundlisten)
Native to
Native speakers
70 million[6]
(110 million total speakers)[5]
Early forms
Standard forms
Dialects
Official status
Official language in
Regulated by
Language codes
fa
fas (T)
ISO 639-3fas – inclusive code
Individual codes:
pes – Iranian Persian
prs – Dari
tgk – Tajik
aiq – Aimaq dialect
bhh – Bukhori dialect
haz – Hazaragi dialect
jpr – Judeo-Persian
phv – Pahlavani
deh – Dehwari
jdt – Judeo-Tat
ttt – Caucasian Tat
fars1254[8]
Linguasphere
58-AAC (Wider Persian)
> 58-AAC-c (Central Persian)
Persian Language Location Map1.png
Areas with significant numbers of Persian speakers (including dialects)
Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan.svg
  Countries where Persian is an official language
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Persian (ən/), also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی, fārsi, [fɒːɾˈsiː] (About this soundlisten)), is a Western Iranian language belonging to the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian subdivision of the Indo-European languages. It is a pluricentric language predominantly spoken and used officially within Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan in three mutually intelligible standard varieties, namely Iranian Persian, Dari Persian (officially named Dari since 1958)[9] and Tajiki Persian (officially named Tajik since the Soviet era).[10] It is also spoken natively in the Tajik variety by a significant population within Uzbekistan,[11][12][13] as well as within other regions with a Persianate history in the cultural sphere of Greater Iran. It is written officially within Iran and Afghanistan in the Persian alphabet, a derivation of the Arabic script, and within Tajikistan in the Tajik alphabet, a derivation of Cyrillic.

The Persian language is a continuation of Middle Persian, the official religious and literary language of the Sasanian Empire (224–651 CE), itself a continuation of Old Persian, which was used in the Achaemenid Empire (550–330 BC).[14][15] It originated in the region of Fars (Persia) in southwestern Iran.[16] Its grammar is similar to that of many European languages.[17]

Throughout history, Persian has been a prestigious cultural language used by various empires in Western Asia, Central Asia, and South Asia.[18] Old Persian written works are attested in Old Persian cuneiform on several inscriptions from between the 6th and the 4th centuries BC, and Middle Persian literature is attested in Aramaic-derived scripts (Pahlavi and Manichaean) on inscriptions from the time of the Parthian Empire and in books centered in Zoroastrian and Manichaean scriptures from between the 3rd to the 10th century AD. New Persian literature began to flourish after the Arab conquest of Iran with its earliest records from the 9th century, since then adopting the Arabic script.[19] Persian was the first language to break through the monopoly of Arabic on writing in the Muslim world, with the writing of Persian poetry developed as a court tradition in many eastern courts.[18] Some of the famous works of medieval Persian literature are the Shahnameh of Ferdowsi, the works of Rumi, the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, the Panj Ganj of Nizami Ganjavi, the Divān of Hafez, The Conference of the Birds by Attar of Nishapur, and the miscellanea of Gulistan and Bustan by Saadi Shirazi.

Persian has left a considerable influence on its neighboring languages, including other Iranian languages, the Turkic languages, Armenian, Georgian and the Indo-Aryan languages (especially Urdu). It also exerted some influence on Arabic, particularly Bahrani Arabic,[20] while borrowing some vocabulary from it under medieval Arab rule.[14][17][21][22][23][24]

There are approximately 110 million Persian speakers worldwide, including Persians, Tajiks, Hazaras, Caucasian Tats and Aimaqs. The term Persophone might also be used to refer to a speaker of Persian.[25][26]

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: Парсыбзэ
Afrikaans: Persies
Alemannisch: Persische Sprache
አማርኛ: ፋርስኛ
Ænglisc: Persisc sprǣc
العربية: لغة فارسية
aragonés: Idioma persa
asturianu: Idioma persa
azərbaycanca: Fars dili
تۆرکجه: فارس دیلی
Bân-lâm-gú: Pho-su-gí
башҡортса: Фарсы теле
беларуская: Персідская мова
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Пэрсыдзкая мова
भोजपुरी: फ़ारसी भाषा
български: Персийски език
Boarisch: Persisch
bosanski: Perzijski jezik
brezhoneg: Perseg
català: Persa
Чӑвашла: Перс чĕлхи
čeština: Perština
Cymraeg: Perseg
davvisámegiella: Persiagiella
ދިވެހިބަސް: ފާރިސީ
dolnoserbski: Persišćina
Ελληνικά: Περσική γλώσσα
español: Idioma persa
Esperanto: Persa lingvo
euskara: Persiera
Fiji Hindi: Farsi bhasa
français: Persan
Frysk: Perzysk
Gaeilge: An Pheirsis
galego: Lingua persa
贛語: 波斯語
ગુજરાતી: ફારસી ભાષા
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Pô-sṳ̂-ngî
한국어: 페르시아어
Hausa: Farisawa
հայերեն: Պարսկերեն
hornjoserbsce: Persišćina
hrvatski: Perzijski jezik
Bahasa Indonesia: Bahasa Persia
interlingua: Persa
íslenska: Persneska
italiano: Lingua persiana
עברית: פרסית
kalaallisut: Farsimiutut
ქართული: სპარსული ენა
қазақша: Парсы тілі
kernowek: Persek
Kiswahili: Kiajemi
коми: Фарси
Кыргызча: Фарс тили
latviešu: Persiešu valoda
лезги: Фарси
lietuvių: Persų kalba
Ligure: Lengua farsi
Limburgs: Perzisch
Lingua Franca Nova: Farsi (lingua)
lumbaart: Lengua persiana
मैथिली: फारसी भाषा
македонски: Персиски јазик
Malagasy: Fiteny persana
Māori: Reo Farsi
მარგალური: სპარსული ნინა
مصرى: فارسى
مازِرونی: فارسی
Bahasa Melayu: Bahasa Parsi
Minangkabau: Bahaso Persia
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Pŏ̤-sṳ̆-ngṳ̄
монгол: Перс хэл
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ပါရှားဘာသာစကား
Nederlands: Perzisch
नेपाली: फारसी भाषा
नेपाल भाषा: पारसी भाषा
日本語: ペルシア語
Nordfriisk: Persisk spriak
norsk: Persisk
norsk nynorsk: Persisk
occitan: Persan
олык марий: Фарси йылме
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Fors tili
پنجابی: فارسی
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ភាសាពែក
Tok Pisin: Tokples Pesia
português: Língua persa
română: Limba persană
Runa Simi: Pharsi simi
русиньскый: Перьскый язык
саха тыла: Перс тыла
Gagana Samoa: Fa'aPeresia
Simple English: Persian language
slovenčina: Perzské jazyky
slovenščina: Perzijščina
ślůnski: Perskŏ gŏdka
Soomaaliga: Af-Faarisi
српски / srpski: Персијски језик
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Perzijski jezik
svenska: Persiska
tarandíne: Lènga persiane
татарча/tatarça: Фарсы теле
తెలుగు: పార్సీ భాష
Türkçe: Farsça
Türkmençe: Farsi diller
українська: Перська мова
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: پارس تىلى
vèneto: Lengua farsi
Tiếng Việt: Tiếng Ba Tư
Volapük: Pärsänapük
文言: 波斯語
Winaray: Pinersyano
吴语: 波斯语
ייִדיש: פערסיש
粵語: 波斯文
Zazaki: Farski
žemaitėška: Persu kalba
中文: 波斯语