Permian Period
298.9–251.902 million years ago
Mean atmospheric O
content over period duration
c. 23 vol % [1] [2]
(115 % of modern level
Mean atmospheric CO
content over period duration
c. 900 ppm [3]
(3 times pre-industrial level)
Mean surface temperature over period duration c. 16 °C [4]
(2 °C above modern level)
Sea level (above present day) Relatively constant at 60 m (200 ft) in early Permian; plummeting during the middle Permian to a constant −20 m (−66 ft) in the late Permian. [5]
Key events in the Permian
view •  discuss • 
-300 —
-295 —
-290 —
-285 —
-280 —
-275 —
-270 —
-265 —
-260 —
-255 —
-250 —
An approximate timescale of key Permian events.
Axis scale: millions of years ago.

The Permian is a geologic period and system which spans 46.7 million years from the end of the Carboniferous Period 298.9 million years ago ( Mya), to the beginning of the Triassic period 251.902 Mya. It is the last period of the Paleozoic era; the following Triassic period belongs to the Mesozoic era. The concept of the Permian was introduced in 1841 by geologist Sir Roderick Murchison, who named it after the city of Perm.

The Permian witnessed the diversification of the early amniotes into the ancestral groups of the mammals, turtles, lepidosaurs, and archosaurs. The world at the time was dominated by two continents known as Pangaea and Siberia, surrounded by a global ocean called Panthalassa. The Carboniferous rainforest collapse left behind vast regions of desert within the continental interior. [6] Amniotes, who could better cope with these drier conditions, rose to dominance in place of their amphibian ancestors.

The Permian (along with the Paleozoic) ended with the Permian–Triassic extinction event, the largest mass extinction in Earth's history, in which nearly 90% of marine species and 70% of terrestrial species died out. [7] It would take well into the Triassic for life to recover from this catastrophe. [8] Recovery from the Permian–Triassic extinction event was protracted; on land, ecosystems took 30 million years to recover. [9]


The term "Permian" was introduced into geology in 1841 by Sir R. I. Murchison, president of the Geological Society of London, who identified typical strata in extensive Russian explorations undertaken with Édouard de Verneuil. [10] [11] The region now lies in the Perm Krai of Russia.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Perm (geologie)
Alemannisch: Perm (Geologie)
العربية: عصر برمي
asturianu: Pérmicu
Bân-lâm-gú: Perm-kí
беларуская: Пермскі перыяд
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Пермскі пэрыяд
български: Перм (период)
brezhoneg: Permian
català: Permià
čeština: Perm
Cymraeg: Permaidd
español: Pérmico
Esperanto: Permio
euskara: Permiar
فارسی: پرمین
français: Permien
galego: Permiano
한국어: 페름기
Bahasa Indonesia: Perm (periode)
íslenska: Permtímabilið
italiano: Permiano
עברית: פרם
қазақша: Перм кезеңі
Latina: Permium
latviešu: Perms
Lëtzebuergesch: Perm (Geologie)
lietuvių: Permas
مازِرونی: پرمین
Bahasa Melayu: Perm (usia)
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Permian
Nederlands: Perm (periode)
日本語: ペルム紀
norsk nynorsk: Permtida
occitan: Permian
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Perm sistemasi
پنجابی: پرمین
Piemontèis: Permian
Plattdüütsch: Perm (Geologie)
polski: Perm
português: Permiano
română: Permian
Scots: Permian
Simple English: Permian
slovenščina: Perm
српски / srpski: Perm (perioda)
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Perm (geologija)
suomi: Permikausi
svenska: Perm
Tagalog: Permiyano
Türkçe: Permiyen
українська: Пермський період
Tiếng Việt: Kỷ Permi
粵語: 二疊紀
中文: 二叠纪