People's Consultative Assembly
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|People's Consultative Assembly of the Republic of Indonesia |
Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat Republik Indonesia
|None (5 year-term)|
Since 8 October 2014
Evert Ernest Magindaan (
Since 8 October 2014
132 DPD members
560 DPR members
|This article is part of a series on the|
The People's Consultative Assembly of the Republic of Indonesia (
In accordance with Law No. 16/1960, the assembly was formed after the first general election of 1971. It was decided at that time that the membership of the Assembly would be twice that of the Representative House.
The 920 membership of MPR continued for the periods of 1977–1982 and 1982–1987. For the periods 1987–1992, 1992–1997, and 1997–1999 the MPR's membership became 1000. One hundred members were appointed representing delegations from groups as addition to the faction delegates of Karya Pembangunan (FKP),
On 18 August 1945, the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence (the Panitia Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia, known as the PPKI) approved a new constitution for the country. It was, however, difficult to implement because of the unsettled postwar conditions. The Preparatory Committee therefore decided to instead implement a document titled The Four Clauses of Transition Regulations. Clause IV of those regulations stated that until permanent governing bodies could be established all governmental powers would be held by the President with the assistance of a National Committee.
On 29 August 1945, the
On 16 October 1945, Vice-President
The role which KNIP played would provide a rough outline of the duties which the Preparatory Committee (the MPR) would later perform.
On 27 December 1949, Indonesia's independence was recognised by the
From that year until 17 August 1950, Indonesia was known as the
On 5 July 1959, President
Immediately after issuing the decree, Sukarno set to work in establishing an MPR, although it would be dubbed the Provisional People's Consultative Assembly (MPRS). Sukarno had originally envisaged a legislative election to be held to replace the MPRS with a proper MPR, but that vote was delayed until 1971 under President
The MPRS during the
The MPRS held its first General Session in
The second General Session was held in Bandung from 15 May to 22 May 1963. It was at this General Session that Sukarno was elected 'President for Life', a major breach to the
The MPRS held its third General Session in Bandung from 11 to 15 April 1965. This General Session further entrenched Sukarno's ideological approaches in the running of Indonesia. Many of Sukarno's Independence Day speeches were adopted as the guideline for policies in politics and economics. The MPRS also decided on the principals of Guided Democracy, which would involve consultations (Musyawarah and Mufakat).
Perhaps the most significant of the MPR's General Sessions was that in 1966. Meeting in Jakarta from 20 June to 5 July 1966, the General Session marked the beginning of the official transfer of power from Sukarno to Suharto. Although the
During the 1966 session, the MPRS passed 24 resolutions; they included revoking Sukarno's appointment to the life presidency, banning
Also during the General Session, Sukarno delivered a speech called Nawaksara ("The Nine Points"), in which he was expected to give account for the 1965
The 1967 MPRS Special Session marked the end of Sukarno's presidency and the beginning of Suharto's. Much like the 1966 General Session, the official transfer of power was done before the General Session in March, with Sukarno stepping down from his position in February. Suharto's appointment as Acting President and the withdrawal of power from Sukarno during this General Session was just a formality.
The MPRS also passed a resolution to re-examine the adoption of the Political Manifesto as GBHN.
The Special Session assembled after Sukarno's Nawaksara Supplementary Letter was deemed to be unworthy because it had not accounted for the G30S. He did not deliver a speech. On 9 February 1967, the DPR declared that the President was endangering the nation through his leadership and ideological stance. It then asked for an MPRS Special Session to be held in March.
The 1968 MPRS Special Session officially consolidated Suharto's position by appointing him to the Presidency. The MPRS commissioned Suharto to continue stabilising Indonesia's politics and to formulate a Five Year Plan for the economy.
The Special Session was assembled when it became obvious that Suharto was not going to be able to hold legislative elections in July 1968 as had been ordered by the 1966 MPRS General Session. During this Special Session, the MPRS also commissioned Suharto to hold elections by 5 July 1971.
The 1973 General Session was the first MPR to be elected by the people. Its membership was increased to 920. Until 1999 it included members from
For the first time the President was required to deliver an Accountability Speech. He was expected to outline the achievements which had been accomplished during his five-year term and the way in which they fulfilled the GBHN set out by the MPR.
In this General Session, the MPR passed resolutions that outlined the method of the election of the President and Vice President and decided on the relationship between the governing bodies in Indonesia such as the MPRS, DPR, DPA, etc. Suharto was elected to a second term as President, with Sultan
The 1978 General Session passed resolutions that included the integration of
The session was noted for the mass walkout of PPP members when Suharto referred to religions as "streams of beliefs".
During this General Session, Suharto was elected to a third term as President, with
The 1983 General Session passed resolutions on the holding of a
The 1988 General Session was marked by a reorganisation of the MPR. Another faction, dubbed the Groups Faction. was added. Members of this faction are drawn from all walks of life and integrated into the factions of Golkar, PPP, and PDI.
This General Session was also noted for the furore over the nomination of
The 1993 General Session was marked by another reorganisation of the MPR, with membership being increased to 1,000. This General Session was noted for the ABRI's preemptive nomination of
The 1998 General Session was held during the height of the
Suharto was elected to a seventh term, with
To date, this is the New Order's last ever General Session, marked with Suharto's downfall before the Special Session in May, marking the starting the new Reformation era.
The 1998 Special Session (Sidang Istimewa) was the first MPR assembly held after
During this Special Session, MPR revoked the special powers given to the President in the 1998 General Session and limited the number of terms of the President. The MPR also resolved to hold legislative elections in 1999, ordered a crackdown on corruption, collusion, and nepotism and revoked the resolution which had ordered the indoctrination of Pancasila to establish it as a national ideology.
This Special Session, and Suharto's resignation, marked the downfall of the New Order, which transited to the Reform era.
The 1999 General Session was the first MPR with "real" reform credentials. In another reorganisation process, the membership was reduced to 700, with 500 DPR deputies, 135 Regional Representatives, and 65 Group Representatives.
During the General Session, the MPR recognised the referendum in East Timor and set a task force to amend the 1945 constitution. It also stipulated that it would thenceforth hold annual sessions to receive reports from the President, DPR, the State Audit Board (BPK), DPA, and the Supreme Court. After receiving these annual reports, the MPR would then work to give recommendations on the course of action that the President could take.
For the first time, the MPR rejected a President's accountability speech, and Presidential and Vice-Presidential elections were held with more than one person competing.
The 2000 Annual Session continued the reform process. The MPR separated the
The 2001 Special Session assembled after President Wahid was allegedly involved in a corruption case and after the DPR began claiming that Wahid's leadership had become incompetent. Originally scheduled for August 2001, the Special Session was brought forward to July 2001. It then removed Wahid from the Presidency and elected Megawati as President and
The 2002 Annual Session continued the constitutional amendment process, most notably changing the system of presidential elections, abolishing the DPA and requiring that 20 percent of the national budget be allocated for education, It also order the formulation of the Constitutional Court by 17 August 2003.
The 2003 Annual Session focused on the legal status of the previous resolutions that the MPR and the MPRS had passed, as well as deciding on the composition of a Constitutional Commission.
The 2003 Annual Session also outlined the MPR's new status, which would come into effect with the inauguration of the new President in 2004. With the President and Vice-President thenceforth elected directly by the people and with the constitutional amendments which the MPR had worked on from 1999 to 2002, the MPR's power was reduced. It would no longer be the highest governing body but would stand on equal terms with the DPR, BPK, the Supreme Court, and the Constitutional Court. In dealing with the President and Vice-President, the MPR would be responsible for the inauguration ceremony and, should the occasion call for it, the impeachment of the President or Vice-President, or both. The MPR would elect a President and Vice-President only if both positions were vacant.
During this session, the MPR heard its last accountability speech by a President.