Pennsylvania

Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
Flag of PennsylvaniaState seal of Pennsylvania
FlagSeal
Nickname(s):
Keystone State;[1] Quaker State
Motto(s): Virtue, Liberty and Independence
State song(s): "Pennsylvania"
Map of the United States with Pennsylvania highlighted
Official languageNone
Spoken languagesEnglish 90.15%
Spanish 4.09%
German (Including Pennsylvania German) 0.87%
Chinese 0.47%
Italian 0.43%[2]
DemonymPennsylvanian
CapitalHarrisburg
Largest cityPhiladelphia
Largest metroDelaware Valley
AreaRanked 33rd
 • Total46,055 sq mi
(119,283 km2)
 • Width283 miles (455 km)
 • Length170 miles (273 km)
 • % water2.7
 • Latitude39° 43′ to 42° 16′ N
 • Longitude74° 41′ to 80° 31′ W
PopulationRanked 5th
 • Total12,807,060 (2018)
 • Density284/sq mi  (110/km2)
Ranked 9th
 • Median household income$60,389[3] (20th)
Elevation
 • Highest pointMount Davis[4][5]
3,213 ft (979 m)
 • Mean1,100 ft  (340 m)
 • Lowest pointDelaware River at Delaware border[4]
Sea level
Before statehoodProvince of Pennsylvania
Admission to UnionDecember 12, 1787 (2nd)
GovernorTom Wolf (D)
Lieutenant GovernorJohn Fetterman (D)
LegislatureGeneral Assembly
 • Upper houseState Senate
 • Lower houseHouse of Representatives
U.S. SenatorsBob Casey Jr. (D)
Pat Toomey (R)
U.S. House delegation9 Democrats
9 Republicans (list)
Time zoneEastern: UTC −5/−4
ISO 3166US-PA
AbbreviationsPA, www.pa.gov
Interactive map of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania state symbols
Flag of Pennsylvania.svg
Seal of Pennsylvania.svg
Living insignia
BirdRuffed grouse
Dog breedGreat Dane
FishBrook trout
FlowerMountain laurel
InsectFirefly (Photuris pensylvanica)
MammalWhite-tailed deer
TreeEastern hemlock
Inanimate insignia
BeverageMilk
DancePolka
FoodChocolate Chip Cookie [6]
FossilTrilobite
SoilHazleton
State route marker
Pennsylvania state route marker
State quarter
Pennsylvania quarter dollar coin
Released in 1999
Lists of United States state symbols

Pennsylvania,[7] officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle. The Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, and New Jersey to the east.

Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, and the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U.S. Census count in 2010. It is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia (1,580,863), and Pittsburgh (302,407). The state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles (225 km) of waterfront along Lake Erie and the Delaware Estuary.[8]

The state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States; it came into being in 1681 as a result of a royal land grant to William Penn, the son of the state's namesake. Part of Pennsylvania (along the Delaware River), together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden. It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78.

Geography

Pennsylvania is 170 miles (274 km) north to south and 283 miles (455 km) east to west.[9] Of a total 46,055 square miles (119,282 km2), 44,817 square miles (116,075 km2) are land, 490 square miles (1,269 km2) are inland waters, and 749 square miles (1,940 km2) are waters in Lake Erie.[10] It is the 33rd-largest state in the United States.[11] Pennsylvania has 51 miles (82 km)[12] of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles (92 km)[8] of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean.

The boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line (39° 43' N) to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.

Cities include Philadelphia, Reading, Lebanon and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown, Bethlehem, and Easton in the central east (known as the Lehigh Valley). The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre, Pittston (Greater Pittston), and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York, Carlisle, and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region.

The state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau, Ridge and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain, Piedmont, and the Erie Plain.

Adjacent states and province

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Pennsilvanië
Alemannisch: Pennsylvania
አማርኛ: ፔንስልቬኒያ
Ænglisc: Pennsylvānia
العربية: بنسيلفانيا
aragonés: Pennsilvania
asturianu: Pennsylvania
Avañe'ẽ: Pensilvania
azərbaycanca: Pensilvaniya
Bân-lâm-gú: Pennsylvania
башҡортса: Пенсильвания
беларуская: Пенсільванія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Пэнсыльванія
Bikol Central: Pennsylvania
Bislama: Pennsylvania
български: Пенсилвания
Boarisch: Pennsylvania
bosanski: Pennsylvania
brezhoneg: Pennsylvania
català: Pennsilvània
Чӑвашла: Пенсильвани
Cebuano: Pennsylvania
čeština: Pensylvánie
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Pennsylvania
Cymraeg: Pennsylvania
davvisámegiella: Pennsylvania
Deitsch: Pennsilfaani
Deutsch: Pennsylvania
Ελληνικά: Πενσυλβάνια
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Pennsylvania
español: Pensilvania
Esperanto: Pensilvanio
euskara: Pennsylvania
Fiji Hindi: Pennsylvania
føroyskt: Pennsylvania
français: Pennsylvanie
Gaeilge: Pennsylvania
Gagauz: Pensilvaniya
Gàidhlig: Pennsylvania
galego: Pensilvania
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Pennsylvania
Hawaiʻi: Penekelewinia
հայերեն: Փենսիլվանիա
hornjoserbsce: Pennsylvania
hrvatski: Pennsylvania
Ilokano: Pennsylvania
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: পেনসিলভানিয়া
Bahasa Indonesia: Pennsylvania
interlingua: Pennsylvania
Interlingue: Pensilvania
Iñupiak: Pennsylvania
isiZulu: Pennsylvania
íslenska: Pennsylvanía
italiano: Pennsylvania
עברית: פנסילבניה
Basa Jawa: Pennsylvania
Kabɩyɛ: Pɛnsilvaanii
Kapampangan: Pennsylvania
ქართული: პენსილვანია
қазақша: Пенсильвания
kernowek: Pennsylvani
Kiswahili: Pennsylvania
Kreyòl ayisyen: Pènsilvani
kurdî: Pensîlvanya
Кыргызча: Пенсильвания
кырык мары: Пенсильвани
Ladino: Pennsilvania
لۊری شومالی: پئنسیلڤانیا
Latina: Pennsilvania
latviešu: Pensilvānija
Lëtzebuergesch: Pennsylvania
lietuvių: Pensilvanija
Limburgs: Pennsylvania
Lingua Franca Nova: Pennsylvania
lumbaart: Pennsylvania
magyar: Pennsylvania
македонски: Пенсилванија
Malagasy: Pennsylvania
Māori: Pennsylvania
მარგალური: პენსილვანია
مازِرونی: پنسیلوانیا
Bahasa Melayu: Pennsylvania
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Pennsylvania
Nāhuatl: Pennsylvania
Dorerin Naoero: Pennsylvania
Nederlands: Pennsylvania
नेपाल भाषा: पेन्सिल्भेनिया
нохчийн: Пенсильвани
Nordfriisk: Pennsylvania
norsk nynorsk: Pennsylvania
occitan: Pennsilvània
олык марий: Пенсильваний
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Pennsilvaniya
پنجابی: پنسلوانیا
Papiamentu: Pennsylvania
Piemontèis: Pennsylvania
Plattdüütsch: Pennsylvania
polski: Pensylwania
português: Pensilvânia
română: Pennsylvania
rumantsch: Pennsylvania
русиньскый: Пенсилвания
русский: Пенсильвания
саха тыла: Пеннсүлваниа
Gagana Samoa: Penisilevania
Seeltersk: Pennsylvanien
sicilianu: Pennsylvania
Simple English: Pennsylvania
slovenčina: Pensylvánia
slovenščina: Pensilvanija
ślůnski: Pynsylwańijo
српски / srpski: Пенсилванија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Pennsylvania
svenska: Pennsylvania
Tagalog: Pennsylvania
Taqbaylit: Pennsylvania
татарча/tatarça: Пенсилвания
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᎤᎩᏓᎵᏱ
Türkçe: Pensilvanya
українська: Пенсильванія
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Pénsilwaniye Shitati
vèneto: Pennsylvania
Tiếng Việt: Pennsylvania
Volapük: Pensülvän
Winaray: Pennsylvania
Yorùbá: Pennsylvania
Zazaki: Pennsylvania
žemaitėška: Pensėlvanėjė