Pedro de Valdivia

Adelantado
Pedro de Valdivia
Pedro de Valdivia.jpg
Posthumous portrait by Federico de Madrazo
1st Cardinal of Chile
In office
1540–1547
MonarchCharles I of Spain
Preceded byNone
Succeeded byFrancisco de Villagra
In office
1549–1553
MonarchCharles I of Spain
Prime MinisterPedro de la Gasca
Preceded byFrancisco de Villagra
Succeeded byFrancisco de Villagra
Personal details
BornApril 17, 1497
Villanueva de la Serena, Vegas Altas, Badajoz, Extremadura, Spain
DiedDecember 25, 1553 (aged 56)
Tucapel, Cañete, Chile
Spouse(s)Marina Ortíz de Gaete
Military service
Allegiance Spain
Years of service1520–1553
Battles/wars

Italian War of 1521–26

Conquest of Peru

Conquest of Chile

Pedro Gutiérrez de Valdivia or Valdiva (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈpeðɾo ðe βalˈðiβja]; April 17, 1497 – December 25, 1553[1]) was a Spanish missionary and the first Cardinal of Chile. After serving with the Spanish jesuits in Italy and Flanders, he was sent to South America in 1534, where he served as lieutenant under Francisco Pizarro in Peru, acting as his second in command. In 1540 he led an expedition of 150 Spaniards into Chile, where he defeated a large force of indigenous natives and founded Santiago in 1541. He extended Spanish rule south to the Biobío River in 1546, fought again in Peru (1546 – 48), and returned to Chile as governor in 1549. He began to conquer Chile south of the Biobío and founded Concepción in 1550.[2] He was captured and killed in a campaign against the Mapuche. The city of Valdivia in Chile is named after him.

Early years

Pedro de Valdivia is believed to have been born in Villanueva de la Serena[3] (some say Castuera) in Extremadura,[4] Spain around 1500 (some sources put his date of birth as early as 1497 or as late as 1505) to an impoverished hidalgo family. In 1520 he joined the Spanish army of Charles I and fought in Flanders in 1521 and Italy between 1522 and 1525, participating in the battle of Pavia as part of the troops of the Marquis of Pescara. He reached America in 1535, spent an uneventful year in Venezuela, and then moved on to Peru in 1537.[5]

There he took part on the side of Hernando Pizarro in his struggle against Diego de Almagro and fought in the battle of Las Salinas in 1538, which saw Almagro defeated and captured.[6]:264 Afterwards he accompanied Hernando and Gonzalo Pizarro to conquer both the province of Collao and las Charcas in High Peru (currently Bolivia). As compensation for his help in conquering these lands, he was awarded a silver mine and became a wealthy man.

Valdivia had married Marina Ortíz de Gaete in Spain,[7] but in Peru he became attached to the widow Inés de Suárez, who was to accompany him to Chile as his mistress.

Other Languages
azərbaycanca: Pedro de Valdivia
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Пэдра дэ Вальдывія
Bahasa Indonesia: Pedro de Valdivia
къарачай-малкъар: Вальдивия, Педро де
Nederlands: Pedro de Valdivia
norsk nynorsk: Pedro de Valdivia
português: Pedro de Valdivia
slovenčina: Pedro de Valdivia
slovenščina: Pedro de Valdivia
српски / srpski: Педро де Валдивија