Pedro Nunes

Pedro Nunes
Pedro Nunes.png
Pedro Nunes, 1843 print
Died11 August 1578 (aged 76)
OccupationMathematician, cosmographer, and professor

Pedro Nunes (Portuguese: [ˈpedɾu ˈnunɨʃ]; Latin: Petrus Nonius; 1502 – 11 August 1578)[1] was a Portuguese mathematician, cosmographer, and professor, from a New Christian (of Jewish origin) family.[2][3]

Nunes, considered to be one of the greatest mathematicians of his time,[4] is best known for his contributions in the nautical sciences (navigation and cartography), which he approached, for the first time, in a mathematical way. He was the first to propose the idea of a loxodrome, and was the inventor of several measuring devices, including the nonius (from which Vernier scale was derived), named after his Latin surname.[5]


Little is known about Nunes' early education, life or family background, only that he was born in Alcácer do Sal, his origins are Jewish and that his grandchildren spent a few years behind bars after they were accused by the Portuguese Inquisition of professing and secretly practicing Judaism.[6] He studied at the University of Salamanca, maybe from 1521 until 1522, and at the University of Lisbon (this University later become the University of Coimbra) where he obtained a degree in medicine in 1525. In the 16th century medicine used astrology, so he also learned astronomy and mathematics.[5]

He continued his medical studies but held various teaching posts within the University of Lisbon, including Moral, Philosophy, Logic and Metaphysics. When, in 1537, the Portuguese University located in Lisbon returned to Coimbra, he moved to the re-founded University of Coimbra to teach mathematics, a post he held until 1562.[citation needed] This was a new post in the University of Coimbra and it was established to provide instruction in the technical requirements for navigation: clearly a topic of great importance in Portugal at this period, when the control of sea trade was the primary source of Portuguese wealth. Mathematics became an independent post in 1544.[5]

In addition to teaching he was appointed Royal Cosmographer in 1529 and Chief Royal Cosmographer in 1547: a post which he held until his death.[5]

In 1531, King John III of Portugal charged Nunes with the education of his younger brothers Luís and Henry. Years later Nunes was also charged with the education of the king's grandson, and future king, Sebastian.[5]

While at the University of Coimbra, future astronomer Christopher Clavius attended Pedro Nunes' classes, and was influenced by his works.[5] Clavius, proponent of the Gregorian Calendar, the greatest figure of the Colégio Romano, the great center of Roman Catholic knowledge of that period, classified Nunes as “supreme mathematical genius".[6] Nunes died in Coimbra.

Other Languages
العربية: بيدرو نونيز
azərbaycanca: Pedru Nuniş
български: Педру Нуниш
català: Pedro Nunes
Deutsch: Pedro Nunes
español: Pedro Nunes
euskara: Pedro Nunes
français: Pedro Nunes
italiano: Pedro Nunes
עברית: פדרו נונש
Mirandés: Pedro Nunes
norsk nynorsk: Pedro Nunes
português: Pedro Nunes
русский: Нуниш, Педру
slovenščina: Pedro Nunes
svenska: Pedro Nunes
Türkçe: Pedro Nunes