Pearl millet

Pearl millet
Grain millet, early grain fill, Tifton, 7-3-02.jpg
U.S. pearl millet hybrid for grain
Scientific classification edit
P. glaucum
Binomial name
Pennisetum glaucum

Setariopsis glauca (L.) Samp.
Setaria sericea (Sol.) P.Beauv.
Setaria rufa Chevall.
Setaria lutescens (Weigel) F.T.Hubb.
Setaria glauca (L.) P.Beauv.
Phleum africanum Lour.
Pennisetum typhoideum var. plukenetii
Pennisetum typhoideum var. echinurus
Pennisetum typhoideum Rich.
Pennisetum typhoides (Burm.f.) Stapf & C.E.Hubb.
Pennisetum spicatum subsp. willdenowii
Pennisetum spicatum var. typhoideum
Pennisetum spicatum var. macrostachyum
Pennisetum spicatum var. longipedunculatum
Pennisetum spicatum var. echinurus
Pennisetum spicatum (L.) Körn.
Pennisetum solitarium Stokes
Pennisetum pycnostachyum Stapf & C.E.Hubb.
Pennisetum plukenetii (Link) T.Durand & Schinz
Pennisetum nigritarum var. macrostachyum
Pennisetum nigritarum var. deflexum
Pennisetum nigritarum (Schltdl.) T.Durand & Schinz
Pennisetum megastachyum Steud.
Pennisetum malacochaete Stapf & C.E.Hubb.
Pennisetum maiwa Stapf & C.E.Hubb.
Pennisetum linnaei Kunth
Pennisetum leonis Stapf & C.E.Hubb.
Pennisetum indicum A.Braun
Pennisetum giganteum Ten. ex Steud.
Pennisetum gibbosum Stapf & C.E.Hubb.
Pennisetum gambiense Stapf & C.E.Hubb.
Pennisetum echinurus (K.Schum.) Stapf & C.E.Hubb.
Pennisetum cinereum Stapf & C.E.Hubb.
Pennisetum cereale Trin.
Pennisetum aureum Link
Pennisetum ancylochaete Stapf & C.E.Hubb.
Pennisetum americanum subsp. typhoideum
Pennisetum americanum subsp. spicatum
Pennisetum americanum f. echinurus
Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke
Pennisetum albicauda Stapf & C.E.Hubb.
Penicillaria willdenowii Klotzsch ex.A.Braun & C.D.Bouché
Penicillaria typhoidea (Burm.) Schltdl.
Penicillaria spicata (L.) Willd.
Penicillaria solitaria Stokes
Penicillaria roxburghii Müll.Berol
Penicillaria plukenetii Link
Penicillaria nigritarum Schltdl.
Penicillaria mossambicensis Müll.Berol
Penicillaria macrostachya Klotzsch
Penicillaria involucrata (Roxb.) Schult.
Penicillaria elongata Schrad. ex Schltdl.
Penicillaria deflexa Andersson ex A.Braun
Penicillaria ciliata Willd.
Penicillaria arabica A.Braun
Penicillaria alopecuroides A.Braun
Panicum spicatum (L.) Roxb.
Panicum sericeum Aiton
Panicum lutescens Weigel
Panicum involucratum Roxb.
Panicum indicum Mill.
Panicum holcoides Trin.
Panicum glaucum L.
Panicum compressum Balb. ex Steud.
Panicum coeruleum Mill.
Panicum americanum L.
Panicum alopecuroides J.Koenig ex Trin.
Ixophorus glaucus (L.) Nash
Holcus spicatus L.
Holcus racemosus Forssk.
Holcus paniciformis Roxb. ex Hook.f.
Chamaeraphis glauca (L.) Kuntze
Chaetochloa lutescens (Weigel) Stuntz
Chaetochloa glauca (L.) Scribn.
Cenchrus pycnostachyus Steud.
Andropogon racemosus (Forssk.) Poir. ex Steud.
Alopecurus typhoides Burm.f.

Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) is the most widely grown type of millet. It has been grown in Africa and the Indian subcontinent since prehistoric times. The center of diversity, and suggested area of domestication, for the crop is in the Sahel zone of West Africa. Recent archaeobotanical research has confirmed the presence of domesticated pearl millet on the Sahel zone of northern Mali between 2500 and 2000 BC.[1] Cultivation subsequently spread and moved overseas to India. The earliest archaeological records in the Indian subcontinent date to around 2000 BC,[2] and it spread rapidly through Northern Indian subcontinent reaching South India by 1500 BC, based on evidence from the site of Hallur. Cultivation also spread throughout eastern and southern parts of Africa. Pearl millet is widely grown in the northeastern part of Nigeria (especially in Borno and Yobe states). It is a major source of food to the local villagers of that region. The crop grows easily in that region due to its ability to withstand harsh weather conditions like drought and flood. Records exist for cultivation of pearl millet in the United States in the 1850s, and the crop was introduced into Brazil in the 1960s.


With ovoid grains of 3 – 4 mm length pearl millet has the largest kernels of all varieties of millet (not including sorghum) which can be nearly white, pale yellow, brown, grey, slate blue or purple. The 1000-seed weight can be anything from 2.5 to 14 g with a mean of 8 g.

The height of the plant ranges from 0.5 – 4 m.[3]

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: БажэкӀэ
Afrikaans: Pêrelbalalagras
العربية: ثيوم أغبر
беларуская: Мяшэй шызы
भोजपुरी: बजड़ी
català: Mill perlat
Deutsch: Perlhirse
ދިވެހިބަސް: ބާދިރީ
français: Mil à chandelle
ગુજરાતી: બાજરો
한국어: 진주조
हिन्दी: बजड़ी
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಸಜ್ಜೆ
Kiswahili: Mwele
മലയാളം: ബജ്റ
मराठी: बाजरी
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ကုလားဆတ်စပါး
Nederlands: Parelgierst
norsk: Perlehirse
پنجابی: باجرا
português: Pennisetum glaucum
svenska: Pärlhirs
தமிழ்: கம்பு
తెలుగు: సజ్జలు
українська: Pennisetum glaucum
Tiếng Việt: Pennisetum glaucum
中文: 御穀