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The town of Peñamiller is the local governing authority for over 160 communities, which together make up a territory of 694.902 km2. The municipality borders the municipalities of
Aside from the municipal seat, important communities include San Miguel Palmas, Camargo, Río Blanco, Agua Fría, Villa Emiliano Zapata, La Plazuela and El Portugués. San Miguel Palmas is 25 km from the municipal seat and has about 640 inhabitants. It is distinguished by the making of
Río Blanco is 56 km from the municipal seat and 26 km from Camargo by dirt road. It is one of the oldest communities in the municipality, founded near the end of the 17th century because of its mineral deposits and abundance of water, as it is located next to the fresh water spring. Today, the area raises rainbow trout in tanks and has forests and significant wildlife. It has a population of about 650 people. It has a church from the 19th century and remains of gold, silver and mercury mines from its heyday, and there are still deposits of gold, silver,
Villa Emiliano Zapata is twelve km from the municipal seat. In the municipality, it was the center of agrarian revolt during the
Agua Fría is a small community founded in the 20th century. The architecture of its buildings is modern, and many are made of pink sandstone. Las Piedras Encimadas de Agua Fría (The Stacked Stones of Agua Fría) is named after enormous blocks of
As of 2005, there were 3,597 dwellings, of which all but about forty were privately owned. Most are built with cinderblock or stone, with half having cement floors and just over half have
There are about fifty preschools, fifty eight primary schools and eleven middle schools (ten are distance learning and one is technical in the municipal seat). Colegio de Estudios Científicos y Tecnológicos del Estado de Querétaro (CECyTEQ) is the technical high school, offering careers in nursing and electrical work. There is also a distance education site in Camargo which offers high school level studies. Education for adults is offered at the primary and middle school level for those over age 15.
Telephone service was spotty in the Sierra Gorda until the 1980s when a cell phone tower was placed in El Motoshí which allows service to more than 200 people. Most other phone service is still based on communal phone banks in various communities. Only the municipal seat and the community of San Juanico have inhome service. Mail service is limited to the municipal seat, Río Blanco and Misión de Palmas. Much of inter-governmental communication is done by radio.
There are two former haciendas, one in Boquillas and the other in Villa Emiliano Zapata. The municipality has seven other churches which include those in Agua Caliente, Boquillas, Río Blanco, two in San Miguel Palmas and two in Villa Emiliano Zapata.
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