Pawnee people

Pawnee Nation
Chaticks si Chaticks
Pawnee flag.svg
Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma tribal flag
Total population
3,600
Regions with significant populations
 United States ( Oklahoma)
Languages
English, Pawnee
Religion
Native American Church, Christianity, Traditional Tribal Religion
Related ethnic groups
Caddo, Kitsai, Wichita, Arikara

The Pawnee are a Plains Indian tribe who are headquartered in Pawnee, Oklahoma. Pawnee people are enrolled in the federally recognized Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma. Historically, they lived in Nebraska and Kansas.[1] In the Pawnee language, the Pawnee people refer to themselves as Chatiks si chatiks or "Men of Men."[2]

Historically, the Pawnee lived in villages of earth lodges with adjacent farmlands near the Loup, Republican, and South Platte rivers. The Pawnee tribal economic activities throughout the year alternated between farming crops and hunting buffalo.

In the early 19th century, the Pawnee numbered more than 10,000 people and were one of the largest and most powerful tribes in the west. Although dominating the Loup (ickariʾ) and Platte (kíckatuus) river areas for centuries, they later suffered from increasing encroachment and attrition by their numerically superior, nomadic enemies: the Sioux (or Lakota (páhriksukat / paahíksukat) ("cut throat / cuts the throat"), Cheyenne (sáhe / sáhi), and Arapaho (sáriʾitihka) ("dog eater"); the Pawnee called these collectively as cárarat ("enemy tribe") or cahriksuupiíruʾ ("enemy"). The Pawnee were occasionally at war with the Comanche (raaríhtaʾ) and Kiowa (káʾiwa) farther south. They had suffered many losses due to Eurasian infectious diseases brought by the expanding Europeans, and by 1860, the Pawnee population was reduced to 4,000. It further decreased, because of disease, crop failure, and warfare, to approximately 2,400 by 1873, after which time the Pawnee were forced to move to Indian Territory in Oklahoma. Many Pawnee warriors enlisted to serve as Indian scouts in the US Army to track and fight their tribal enemies resisting European-American expansion on the Great Plains.

Government

There are approximately 3,200 enrolled Pawnee and nearly all reside in Oklahoma. Their tribal headquarters is in Pawnee, Oklahoma, and their tribal jurisdictional area is in parts of Noble, Payne, and Pawnee counties. The tribal constitution establishes the government of the Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma. This government consists of the Resaru Council, the Pawnee Business Council, and the Supreme Court. Enrollment into the tribe requires a minimum ​18th blood quantum.[3][1]

The Resaru Council, also known as the "Chiefs Council" consists of eight members, each serving four-year terms. Each band has two representatives on the Resaru Council selected by the members of the tribal bands, Cawi, Kitkahaki, Pitahawirata and Ckiri. The Resaru Council has the right to review all acts of the Pawnee Business Council regarding the Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma membership and Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma claims or rights growing out of treaties between the Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma and the United States according to provision listed in the Pawnee Nation Constitution.

2013–2017
  • Morgan Littlesun, 1st Chief Kitkehahki Band
  • Ralph Haymond, 2nd Chief Kitkehahki Band, 2nd Nasharo Council Chief
  • Matt Reed, 2nd Chief Chaui Band
  • Pat Leading Fox, Sr., 1st Chief Skidi Band
  • Jimmy Horn, 1st Chief Chaui Band, Nasharo Council Treasurer
  • Warren Pratt, Jr., 2nd Chief Skidi Band, Nasharo Council 1st Chief
  • Francis Morris, 1st Chief Pitahauirata Band
  • Lester Moon Eagle, 2nd Chief Pitahauirata Band, Nasharo Council Secretary
Current
  • Morgan Littlesun, 2nd Chief Kitkahaki Band
  • Ralph Haymond, Jr., 1st Chief Kitkahaki Band
  • Matt Reed, 1st Chief Cawi Band
  • Jimmy Horn, 2nd Chief Cawi Band
  • Pat Leading Fox, Sr., 2nd Chief, Ckiri Band
  • Warren Pratt, Jr., 1st Chief, Ckiri Band
  • Ron Rice, Sr. 1st Chief, Pitahawirata Band
  • Tim Jim, 2nd Chief, Pitahawirata Band

The Pawnee Business Council is the supreme governing body of the Pawnee Tribe of Oklahoma. Subject to the limitations imposed by the Constitution and applicable Federal law, the Pawnee Business Council shall exercise all the inherent, statutory, and treaty powers of the Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma by the enactment of legislation, the transaction of business, and by otherwise speaking or acting on behalf of the Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma on all matters which the Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma is empowered to act, including the authority to hire legal counsel to represent the Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma.

Current Pawnee Business Council
  • Bruce Pratt, President
  • Darrell Wildcat, Vice President
  • Phammie N. Littlesun, Treasurer
  • Angela Thompson, Secretary
  • Council Seat #1
  • Council Seat #2
  • Council Seat #3
  • Council Seat #4

The new Council members were voted in by the people; elections are held every two years on the first Saturday in May.

Other Languages
العربية: باوني
беларуская: Паўні
brezhoneg: Pawnee
čeština: Póníové
dansk: Pawnee
Deutsch: Pawnee
español: Pawnee
Esperanto: Paŭnioj
euskara: Pawnee
فارسی: پاونی‌ها
français: Pawnees
galego: Pobo pawnee
italiano: Pawnee
ქართული: პაუნი
lietuvių: Pauniai
magyar: Paunik
Malagasy: Pawnee
Nederlands: Pawnee (volk)
norsk: Pawnee
Plattdüütsch: Pawnee
polski: Paunisi
português: Pawnee
русский: Пауни
Simple English: Pawnee people
suomi: Pawneet
svenska: Pawnee
Tsetsêhestâhese: Ho'néhetane
Türkçe: Pavniler
українська: Пауні (народ)
中文: 波尼族