Paul the Apostle

Saint Paul
Apostle of the Gentiles
Bartolomeo Montagna - Saint Paul - Google Art Project.jpg
Saint Paul by Bartolomeo Montagna
Native name
שאול התרסי
(Sha'ul ha-Tarsi, Saul of Tarsus)
Personal details
Bornc. AD 5[1]
Tarsus, Cilicia, Roman Empire[2]
DiedAD c. 64 or c. 67 (aged 61–62 or 64-65)[3][4]
probably in Rome, Roman Empire[4][3]
Sainthood
Feast day
Canonizedby Pre-Congregation
AttributesChristian Martyrdom, Sword
PatronageMissions; Theologians; Evangelists and Gentile Christians

Paul the Apostle (Latin: Paulus; Greek: Παῦλος, translit. Paulos; Coptic: ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; c. 5 – c. 64 or 67),[3] commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus (Hebrew: שאול התרסי‎, translit. Sha'ūl ha-Tarsī; Greek: Σαῦλος Ταρσεύς, translit. Saũlos Tarseús),[6][7] was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of Christ to the first-century world.[8]

Paul is generally considered one of the most important figures of the Apostolic Age[9][10] and in the mid-30s to the mid-50s AD he founded several churches in Asia Minor and Europe. He took advantage of his status as both a Jew and a Roman citizen to minister to both Jewish and Roman audiences.

According to writings in the New Testament and prior to his conversion, Paul was dedicated to persecuting the early disciples of Jesus in the area of Jerusalem.[11] In the narrative of the Acts of the Apostles (often referred to simply as Acts), Paul was traveling on the road from Jerusalem to Damascus on a mission to "arrest them and bring them back to Jerusalem" when the resurrected Jesus appeared to him in a great light. He was struck blind, but after three days his sight was restored by Ananias of Damascus and Paul began to preach that Jesus of Nazareth is the Jewish Messiah and the Son of God.[12] Approximately half of the book of Acts deals with Paul's life and works.

Thirteen of the twenty-seven books in the New Testament have traditionally been attributed to Paul.[13] Seven of the epistles are undisputed by scholars as being authentic, with varying degrees of argument about the remainder. Pauline authorship of the Epistle to the Hebrews is not asserted in the Epistle itself and was already doubted in the 2nd and 3rd centuries.[14] It was almost unquestioningly accepted from the 5th to the 16th centuries that Paul was the author of Hebrews,[15] but that view is now almost universally rejected by scholars.[16] The other six are believed by some scholars to have come from followers writing in his name, using material from Paul's surviving letters and letters written by him that no longer survive.[8][9][17] Other scholars argue that the idea of a pseudonymous author for the disputed epistles raises many problems.[18]

Today, Paul's epistles continue to be vital roots of the theology, worship and pastoral life in the Catholic and Protestant traditions of the West, as well as the Orthodox traditions of the East.[19] Paul's influence on Christian thought and practice has been characterized as being as "profound as it is pervasive", among that of many other apostles and missionaries involved in the spread of the Christian faith.[8] Augustine of Hippo developed Paul's idea that salvation is based on faith and not "works of the law".[citation needed] Martin Luther's interpretation of Paul's writings influenced Luther's doctrine of sola fide.

Available sources

The main source for information about Paul's life is the material found in his epistles and in Acts. However, the epistles contain little information about Paul's past. The book of Acts recounts more information but leaves several parts of Paul's life out of its narrative, such as his probable but undocumented execution in Rome.[20] Some scholars believe Acts also contradicts Paul's epistles on multiple accounts, in particular concerning the frequency of Paul's visits to the church in Jerusalem.[21][22]

Sources outside the New Testament that mention Paul include:

Other Languages
Alemannisch: Paulus von Tarsus
አማርኛ: ጳውሎስ
aragonés: Sant Pavlo
asturianu: Pablo de Tarsu
azərbaycanca: Həvari Pavel
تۆرکجه: پولوس
বাংলা: সন্ত পৌল
Bân-lâm-gú: Pó-lô
башҡортса: Апостол Павел
беларуская: Павел (апостал)
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Павал (апостал)
български: Павел (апостол)
bosanski: Sveti Pavao
brezhoneg: Paol Tars
čeština: Pavel z Tarsu
Chi-Chewa: Paulo Mtumwi
dansk: Paulus
davvisámegiella: Bávlos
eesti: Paulus
español: Pablo de Tarso
Esperanto: Paŭlo de Tarso
فارسی: پولس
Fiji Hindi: Saint Paul
føroyskt: Paulus ápostul
français: Paul de Tarse
Gaeilge: Naomh Pól
Gàidhlig: Pòl à Tarsus
贛語: 聖·保羅
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Pó-lò
hrvatski: Sveti Pavao
Bahasa Indonesia: Paulus dari Tarsus
íslenska: Páll postuli
italiano: Paolo di Tarso
עברית: פאולוס
Kabɩyɛ: Pɔɔlɩ
kaszëbsczi: Swiãti Paweł
Kinyarwanda: Mutagatifu Pawulo
Kiswahili: Mtakatifu Paulo
kurdî: Pawlos
latviešu: Svētais Pāvils
Lëtzebuergesch: Paulus vun Tarsus
lingála: Polo ya Tarsu
magyar: Pál apostol
македонски: Апостол Павле
मराठी: सेंट पॉल
مازِرونی: پولس
Bahasa Melayu: Paulus
Baso Minangkabau: Paulus dari Tarsus
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Bō̤-lò̤
မြန်မာဘာသာ: စိန့်ပေါလ်
Nederlands: Paulus (apostel)
Nedersaksies: Paulus
日本語: パウロ
norsk nynorsk: Paulus
occitan: Pau de Tars
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਸੰਤ ਪੌਲ
پنجابی: پال
Piemontèis: Pàul ëd Tars
português: Paulo de Tarso
română: Pavel (apostol)
rumantsch: Paulus da Tarsus
Runa Simi: Apustul Pawlu
русиньскый: Павло (апостол)
Scots: Saunt Paul
shqip: Shën Pali
sicilianu: Pàulu di Tarsu
Simple English: Paul the Apostle
slovenčina: Pavol (apoštol)
slovenščina: Sveti Pavel
српски / srpski: Апостол Павле
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Pavle iz Tarsa
suomi: Paavali
svenska: Paulus
Tagalog: Apostol Pablo
татарча/tatarça: Apostol Pavel
Türkçe: Pavlus
українська: Павло (апостол)
اردو: پولس
vèneto: San Pagoło
Tiếng Việt: Sứ đồ Phaolô
walon: Sint På
文言: 使徒保羅
ייִדיש: שאול התרסי
粵語: 聖保祿
žemaitėška: Apaštals Paulios