Parliamentary republic

Forms of government.svg
Systems of government
Republican forms of government:
  Presidential republics with a full presidential system
  Presidential republics with a semi-presidential system
  Parliamentary republics with a ceremonial/non-executive president, where a separate head of government leads the executive

Monarchical forms of government:
   Constitutional monarchies with a ceremonial/non-executive monarch, where a separate head of government leads the executive
   Constitutional monarchies which have a separate head of government but where royalty still hold significant executive and/or legislative power

  Countries in which constitutional provisions for government have been suspended (e.g. military dictatorship)
  Countries which do not fit any of the above systems (e.g. transitional governments, unclear political situations or no government)
Map of different parliamentary systems
  Parliamentary republics where parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state.
  Parliamentary republics with an executive presidency dependent on the legislature.
   Constitutional monarchies in which authority is vested in a parliament.

A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament). There are a number of variations of parliamentary republics. Most have a clear differentiation between the head of government and the head of state, with the head of government holding real power, much like constitutional monarchies. Some have combined the roles of head of state and head of government, much like presidential systems, but with a dependency upon parliamentary power.

For the first case mentioned above, the form of executive-branch arrangement is distinct from most other parliamentary and semi-presidential republics that separate the head of state (usually designated as the " president") from the head of government (usually designated as " prime minister", " premier" or " chancellor") and subject the latter to the confidence of parliament and a lenient tenure in office while the head of state lacks dependency and investing either office with the majority of executive power.

Powers

In contrast to republics operating under either the presidential system or the semi-presidential system, the head of state usually does not have executive powers as an executive president would, because many of those powers have been granted to a head of government (usually called a prime minister).[ clarification needed]

However, in a parliamentary republic with a head of state whose tenure is dependent on parliament, the head of government and head of state can form one office (as in Botswana, the Marshall Islands, Nauru, South Africa and Suriname), but the president is still selected in much the same way as the prime minister is in most Westminster systems. This usually means that they are the leader of the largest party or coalition of parties in parliament.

In some cases, the president can legally have executive powers granted to them to undertake the day-to-day running of government (as in Austria and Iceland) but by convention they either do not use these powers or they use them only to give effect to the advice of the parliament or head of government. Some parliamentary republics could therefore be seen as following the semi-presidential system but operating under a parliamentary system.

Other Languages
azərbaycanca: Parlamentli respublika
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Парлямэнцкая рэспубліка
Bahasa Indonesia: Republik parlementer
Simple English: Parliamentary republic
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Parlamentarna republika