Papal States

State of the Church
Stato della Chiesa
Status Ecclesiasticus
754–1870
Interregna (1798–1799, 1809–1814 and 1849)
Anthem: 
The Papal States in 1815 after the Napoleonic Wars
The Papal States in 1815 after the Napoleonic Wars
Map of the Papal States (green) in 1789 before the French seized papal lands in France, including its exclaves of Benevento and Pontecorvo in Southern Italy, and the Comtat Venaissin and Avignon in Southern France.
Map of the Papal States (green) in 1789 before the French seized papal lands in France, including its exclaves of Benevento and Pontecorvo in Southern Italy, and the Comtat Venaissin and Avignon in Southern France.
CapitalRome
Common languagesLatin, Italian, Occitan
Religion Roman Catholic
GovernmentTheocratic absolute elective monarchy
Pope 
• 754–757
Stephen II (first)
• 1846–1870
Pius IX (last)
Cardinal Secretary of State 
• 1551–1555
Girolamo Dandini (first)
• 1848–1870
Giacomo Antonelli (last)
Prime Minister 
• 1848
Gabriele Ferretti (first)
• 1848
Giuseppe Galletti (last)
History 
• Establishment
754
781
• Treaty of Venice (independence from the Holy Roman Empire)
1177
February 15, 1798
May 17, 1809
September 20, 1870
February 11, 1929
Area
1450[1]17,242 km2 (6,657 sq mi)
Population
• 1450[1]
+600000
• 1853[2]
3,124,668
Currency
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Byzantine Empire
Roman Republic (18th century)
First French Empire
Roman Republic (19th century)
Roman Republic (18th century)
First French Empire
Roman Republic (19th century)
Kingdom of Italy
Prisoner in the Vatican
Today part of
Vatican City
This article is part a series on the
Vatican City

The Papal States, officially the State of the Church (Italian: Stato della Chiesa, Italian pronunciation: [ˈstato della ˈkjɛːza]; Latin: Status Ecclesiasticus;[3] also Dicio Pontificia), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870. They were among the major states of Italy from roughly the 8th century until the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia unified the Italian Peninsula by conquest in a campaign virtually concluded in 1861 and definitively in 1870. At their zenith, the Papal States covered most of the modern Italian regions of Lazio (which includes Rome), Marche, Umbria and Romagna, and portions of Emilia. These holdings were considered to be a manifestation of the temporal power of the pope, as opposed to his ecclesiastical primacy.

By 1861, much of the Papal States' territory had been conquered by the Kingdom of Italy. Only Lazio, including Rome, remained under the Pope's temporal control. In 1870, the Pope lost Lazio and Rome and had no physical territory at all, except the Basilica of St Peter and the papal residence and related buildings around the Vatican quarter of Rome, which the new Italian state did not occupy militarily. The head of the Italian government, at the time the Italian Fascist leader Benito Mussolini, ended the crisis between unified Italy and the Holy See by negotiating the Lateran Treaty, signed by the two parties in 1929. This recognized the sovereignty of the Holy See over a newly created international territorial entity, the Vatican City State, limited to a token territory.

Name

The Papal States were also known as the Papal State (although the plural is usually preferred, the singular is equally correct as the polity was more than a mere personal union). The territories were also referred to variously as the State(s) of the Church, the Pontifical States, the Ecclesiastical States, or the Roman States (Italian: Stato Pontificio, also Stato della Chiesa, Stati della Chiesa, Stati Pontifici, and Stato Ecclesiastico; Latin: Status Pontificius, also Dicio Pontificia "papal rule").[4] To some extent the name used varied with the preferences and habits of the European languages in which it was expressed.

Other Languages
Alemannisch: Kirchenstaat
azərbaycanca: Papa dövləti
تۆرکجه: پاپ دؤولتی
Bân-lâm-gú: Kàu-hông-léng
беларуская: Папская вобласць
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Папская вобласьць
български: Папска държава
brezhoneg: Stadoù ar Pab
čeština: Papežský stát
Deutsch: Kirchenstaat
eesti: Kirikuriik
Ελληνικά: Παπικά Κράτη
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Stèd d'la Cîsa
Esperanto: Papa Ŝtato
한국어: 교황령
հայերեն: Պապական մարզ
Bahasa Indonesia: Negara-negara Kepausan
íslenska: Páfaríkið
ქართული: პაპის ოლქი
қазақша: Папа облысы
Kiswahili: Dola la Papa
latviešu: Pāvesta valsts
македонски: Папска држава
Bahasa Melayu: Negeri-Negeri Paus
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Gáu-huòng-guók
Nederlands: Kerkelijke Staat
日本語: 教皇領
norsk nynorsk: Kyrkjestaten
português: Estados Papais
română: Statele Papale
Simple English: Papal States
slovenčina: Pápežský štát
slovenščina: Papeška država
српски / srpski: Папска држава
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Papinska Država
svenska: Kyrkostaten
українська: Папська держава
粵語: 敎會諸國
中文: 教皇国