Pangaea

Map of Pangaea with modern continental outlines

Pangaea or Pangea ( ə/[1]) was a supercontinent that existed during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras.[2][3] It assembled from earlier continental units approximately 335 million years ago, and it began to break apart about 175 million years ago.[4] In contrast to the present Earth and its distribution of continental mass, much of Pangaea was in the southern hemisphere and surrounded by a superocean, Panthalassa. Pangaea was the most recent supercontinent to have existed and the first to be reconstructed by geologists.

Origin of the concept

The name "Pangaea/Pangea" is derived from Ancient Greek pan (πᾶν, "all, entire, whole") and Gaia (Γαῖα, "Mother Earth, land").[5][10] The concept that the continents once formed a continuous land mass was first proposed by Alfred Wegener, the originator of the scientific theory of continental drift, in his 1912 publication The Origin of Continents (Die Entstehung der Kontinente).[11] He expanded upon his hypothesis in his 1915 book The Origin of Continents and Oceans (Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane), in which he postulated that, before breaking up and drifting to their present locations, all the continents had formed a single supercontinent that he called the "Urkontinent".

The name "Pangea" occurs in the 1920 edition of Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane, but only once, when Wegener refers to the ancient supercontinent as "the Pangaea of the Carboniferous".[12] Wegener used the Germanized form "Pangäa", but the name entered German and English scientific literature (in 1922[13] and 1926, respectively) in the Latinized form "Pangaea" (of the Greek "Pangaia"), especially due to a symposium of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists in November 1926.[14]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Pangea
العربية: بانجيا
asturianu: Panxea
azərbaycanca: Pangeya
башҡортса: Пангея
беларуская: Пангея
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Пангея
български: Пангея
bosanski: Pangea
brezhoneg: Pangea
català: Pangea
Cebuano: Pangaea
čeština: Pangea
Cymraeg: Pangaea
dansk: Pangæa
Deutsch: Pangaea
ދިވެހިބަސް: ޕަންގިއާ
eesti: Pangaea
Ελληνικά: Παγγαία
español: Pangea
Esperanto: Pangeo
euskara: Pangea
فارسی: پانگه‌آ
français: Pangée
Gaeilge: Pangaea
Gàidhlig: Pangaea
galego: Panxea
한국어: 판게아
हिन्दी: पैंजिया
hrvatski: Pangea
Bahasa Indonesia: Pangea
íslenska: Pangea
italiano: Pangea
עברית: פנגיאה
Basa Jawa: Pangea
ქართული: პანგეა
қазақша: Пангея
Kiswahili: Pangaia
Kreyòl ayisyen: Panje
Latina: Pangaea
latviešu: Pangeja
Lëtzebuergesch: Pangea
lietuvių: Pangėja
magyar: Pangea
македонски: Пангеја
മലയാളം: പാൻ‌ജിയ
Malti: Pangea
मराठी: पँजिआ
მარგალური: პანგეა
Bahasa Melayu: Pangea
Nederlands: Pangea
Nordfriisk: Pangeea
norsk: Pangea
norsk nynorsk: Pangea
occitan: Pangèa
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਪੈਂਜੀਆ
پنجابی: پینجیہ
Piemontèis: Pangea
Plattdüütsch: Pangaea (Kontinent)
polski: Pangea
português: Pangeia
română: Pangeea
русский: Пангея
Scots: Pangaea
sicilianu: Pangea
Simple English: Pangaea
slovenčina: Pangea
slovenščina: Pangea
Soomaaliga: Pangea
српски / srpski: Пангеа
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Pangea
suomi: Pangea
svenska: Pangaea
Tagalog: Pangaea
татарча/tatarça: Пангея
Türkçe: Pangea
українська: Пангея
اردو: پینجیا
Tiếng Việt: Pangaea
walon: Pandjêye
文言: 盤古大陸
Winaray: Pangaea
粵語: 盤古大陸
Zazaki: Pangea
中文: 盤古大陸