Panama

Republic of Panama

República de Panamá  (Spanish)
Motto: "Pro Mundi Beneficio"
"For the Benefit of the World"
Anthem: Himno Istmeño  (Spanish)
Hymn of the Isthmus
Location of Panama
Location of Panama
Capital
and largest city
Panama City
8°58′N 79°32′W / 8°58′N 79°32′W / 8.967; -79.533
Official languagesSpanish
Ethnic groups
(2010[1])
Demonym(s)Panamanian
GovernmentUnitary presidential constitutional republic
• President
Juan Carlos Varela
Isabel Saint Malo
LegislatureNational Assembly
Independence
• from Spanish Empire
November 28, 1821
• union with Gran Colombia
December 1821
November 3, 1903
November 13, 1945
October 11, 1972
Area
• Total
75,417 km2 (29,119 sq mi)[2] (116th)
• Water (%)
2.9
Population
• 2016 estimate
4,034,119[3]
• 2010 census
3,405,813[4]
• Density
56/km2 (145.0/sq mi) (162)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$107.037 billion[5]
• Per capita
$25,737[5]
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$63.683 billion[5] (78)
• Per capita
$15,313[5] (52)
Gini (2015)Negative increase 51.0[6]
high
HDI (2017)Increase 0.789[7]
high · 66th
Currency
Time zoneUTC−5 (EST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+507
ISO 3166 codePA
Internet TLD.pa

Panama (ɑː/ (About this soundlisten) PAN-ə-mah; Spanish: Panamá [panaˈma]), officially the Republic of Panama (Spanish: República de Panamá), is a country in Central America,[8] bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south. The capital and largest city is Panama City, whose metropolitan area is home to nearly half the country's 4 million people.[3]

Panama was inhabited by indigenous tribes before Spanish colonists arrived in the 16th century. It broke away from Spain in 1821 and joined the Republic of Gran Colombia, a union of Nueva Granada, Ecuador, and Venezuela. After Gran Colombia dissolved in 1831, Panama and Nueva Granada eventually became the Republic of Colombia. With the backing of the United States, Panama seceded from Colombia in 1903, allowing the construction of the Panama Canal to be completed by the US Army Corps of Engineers between 1904 and 1914. The 1977 Torrijos–Carter Treaties led to the transfer of the Canal from the United States to Panama on December 31, 1999.[9]

Revenue from canal tolls continues to represent a significant portion of Panama's GDP, although commerce, banking, and tourism are major and growing sectors. In 2015 Panama ranked 60th in the world in terms of the Human Development Index.[10] Since 2010, Panama has been the second-most competitive economy in Latin America, according to the World Economic Forum's Global Competitiveness Index. Covering around 40 percent of its land area, Panama's jungles are home to an abundance of tropical plants and animals – some of them found nowhere else on the planet.[11] Panama is a founding member of the United Nations and other international organizations such as OAS, LAIA, G77, WHO and NAM.

Etymology

The definite origin of the name Panama is ultimately unknown. There are several theories. One postulates that the country was named after a commonly found species of tree (Sterculia apetala, the Panama tree). Another that the first settlers arrived in Panama in August, when butterflies abound, and that the name means "many butterflies" in one or several of indigenous Amerindian languages that were spoken in the territory prior to Spanish colonization. Most scientifically corroborated theory, that by Panamanian linguists, states that the word is a hispanicization of Kuna language word "bannaba" which means "distant" or "far away".[12]

A commonly relayed legend in Panama is that there was a fishing village that bore the name "Panamá", which purportedly meant "an abundance of fish", when the Spanish colonizers first landed in the area. The exact location of the village is unspecified. The legend is usually corroborated by Captain Antonio Tello de Guzmán's diary entries, who reports landing at an unnamed village while exploring the Pacific coast of Panama in 1515; he only describes the village as a "same small indigenous fishing town". In 1517, Don Gaspar de Espinosa, a Spanish lieutenant, decided to settle a post in the same location Guzmán described. In 1519, Pedrarias Dávila decided to establish the Spanish Empire's Pacific port at the site. The new settlement replaced Santa María La Antigua del Darién, which had lost its function within the Crown's global plan after the Spanish exploitation of the riches in the Pacific began.

The official definition and origin of the name as promoted by Panama's Ministry of Education is the "abundance of fish, trees and butterflies". This is the usual description given in social studies textbooks.

Other Languages
Acèh: Panama
адыгабзэ: Панамэ
Afrikaans: Panama
Alemannisch: Panama
አማርኛ: ፓናማ
العربية: بنما
aragonés: Panamá
arpetan: Panama
asturianu: Panamá
Avañe'ẽ: Panama
Aymar aru: Panama
azərbaycanca: Panama
تۆرکجه: پاناما
bamanankan: Panama
বাংলা: পানামা
Bân-lâm-gú: Panama
башҡортса: Панама
беларуская: Панама
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Панама
भोजपुरी: पनामा
Bikol Central: Panama
български: Панама
Boarisch: Panama
བོད་ཡིག: པ་ན་མ།
bosanski: Panama
brezhoneg: Panamá
буряад: Панама
català: Panamà
Чӑвашла: Панама
Cebuano: Panama
čeština: Panama
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Panamá
chiShona: Panama
Cymraeg: Panama
dansk: Panama
davvisámegiella: Panama
Deutsch: Panama
ދިވެހިބަސް: ޕެނަމާ
dolnoserbski: Panama
डोटेली: पानामा
eesti: Panama
Ελληνικά: Παναμάς
эрзянь: Панама
español: Panamá
Esperanto: Panamo
estremeñu: Panamá
euskara: Panama
eʋegbe: Panama
فارسی: پاناما
Fiji Hindi: Panama
føroyskt: Panama
français: Panama
Frysk: Panama
Gaeilge: Panama
Gagauz: Panama
Gàidhlig: Panama
galego: Panamá
Gĩkũyũ: Panama
ગુજરાતી: પનામા
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: पनामा
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Panama
한국어: 파나마
Hawaiʻi: Panamā
հայերեն: Պանամա
हिन्दी: पनामा
hornjoserbsce: Panama
hrvatski: Panama
Ido: Panama
Ilokano: Panama
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: পানামা
Bahasa Indonesia: Panama
interlingua: Panama
Interlingue: Panamá
Ирон: Панамæ
isiZulu: Panama
íslenska: Panama
italiano: Panama
עברית: פנמה
Basa Jawa: Panama
Kabɩyɛ: Panama
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಪನಾಮಾ
Kapampangan: Panama
ქართული: პანამა
қазақша: Панама
kernowek: Panama
Kinyarwanda: Panama
Kiswahili: Panama
коми: Панама
Kreyòl ayisyen: Panama (peyi)
kurdî: Panama
Кыргызча: Панама
кырык мары: Панама
Ladino: Panama
لۊری شومالی: پاناما
Latina: Panama
latviešu: Panama
Lëtzebuergesch: Panama
lietuvių: Panama
Ligure: Panamá
Limburgs: Panama
lingála: Panama
Lingua Franca Nova: Panama
Livvinkarjala: Panama
la .lojban.: panamas
lumbaart: Panama
magyar: Panama
македонски: Панама
Malagasy: Panama
മലയാളം: പനാമ
Malti: Panama
मराठी: पनामा
მარგალური: პანამა
مصرى: باناما
مازِرونی: پاناما
Bahasa Melayu: Panama
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Panama
монгол: Панам
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ပနားမားနိုင်ငံ
Nederlands: Panama (land)
नेपाली: पानामा
नेपाल भाषा: पनामा
日本語: パナマ
нохчийн: Панама
Nordfriisk: Panama
Norfuk / Pitkern: Panama
norsk: Panama
norsk nynorsk: Panama
Nouormand: Panama
Novial: Panama
олык марий: Панама
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ପାନାମା
Oromoo: Panaamaa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Panama
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਪਨਾਮਾ
पालि: पानामा
پنجابی: پانامہ
Papiamentu: Panama
پښتو: پاناما
Patois: Panamaa
Piemontèis: Panamà
Tok Pisin: Panama
Plattdüütsch: Panama
polski: Panama
português: Panamá
qırımtatarca: Panama
română: Panama
Runa Simi: Panama
русский: Панама
саха тыла: Панама
Gagana Samoa: Panama
संस्कृतम्: पानामा
sardu: Panamá
Scots: Panama
Seeltersk: Panama
shqip: Panamaja
sicilianu: Panamà
සිංහල: පැනමාව
Simple English: Panama
سنڌي: پاناما
SiSwati: IPhanama
slovenčina: Panama (štát)
slovenščina: Panama
ślůnski: Panama
Soomaaliga: Banama
کوردی: پەنەما
српски / srpski: Панама
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Panama
Basa Sunda: Panama
suomi: Panama
svenska: Panama
Tagalog: Panama
தமிழ்: பனாமா
Taqbaylit: Panama
татарча/tatarça: Панама
తెలుగు: పనామా
tetun: Panamá
тоҷикӣ: Панама
Türkçe: Panama
українська: Панама
اردو: پاناما
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: پاناما
Vahcuengh: Panama
vèneto: Pànama
vepsän kel’: Panam
Tiếng Việt: Panama
Volapük: Panamän
Võro: Panama
文言: 巴拿馬
Winaray: Panamá
Wolof: Panamaa
吴语: 巴拿马
ייִדיש: פאנאמא
Yorùbá: Panamá
粵語: 巴拿馬
Zazaki: Panama
Zeêuws: Panama
žemaitėška: Panama
中文: 巴拿马