Palmyra

Palmyra
Tdmr2.png
تدمر
Ruins of Palmyra
The ruins of Palmyra in 2010
Palmyra is located in the center of Syria
Palmyra is located in the center of Syria
Shown within Syria
Alternate name Tadmor
Location Tadmur, Homs Governorate, Syria
Region Syrian Desert
Coordinates 34°33′05″N 38°16′05″E / 34°33′05″N 38°16′05″E / 34.55139; 38.26806
Type Settlement
Part of Palmyrene Empire
Area 80 ha (200 acres)
History
Founded 3rd millennium BC
Abandoned 1932 (1932)
Periods Middle Bronze Age to Modern
Cultures Aramaic, Arabic, Greco-Roman
Site notes
Condition Ruined
Ownership Public
Management Syrian Ministry of Culture
Public access Inaccessible (in a war zone)
Official name Site of Palmyra
Type Cultural
Criteria i, ii, iv
Designated 1980 (1980) (4th Session)
Reference no. 23
Region Arab States
Endangered 2013 (2013)–present. [1]

Palmyra ( ə/; Palmyrene: Tdmr.png Tadmor; Arabic: تَدْمُرTadmur) is an ancient Semitic city in present-day Homs Governorate, Syria. Archaeological finds date back to the Neolithic period, and the city was first documented in the early second millennium BC. Palmyra changed hands on a number of occasions between different empires before becoming a subject of the Roman Empire in the first century AD.

The city grew wealthy from trade caravans; the Palmyrenes were renowned merchants who established colonies along the Silk Road and operated throughout the Roman Empire. Palmyra's wealth enabled the construction of monumental projects, such as the Great Colonnade, the Temple of Bel, and the distinctive tower tombs. The Palmyrenes were a mix of Amorites, Arameans, and Arabs. The city's social structure was tribal, and its inhabitants spoke Palmyrene (a dialect of Aramaic); Greek was used for commercial and diplomatic purposes. The culture of Palmyra was influenced by Greco-Roman culture and produced distinctive art and architecture that combined eastern and western traditions. The city's inhabitants worshiped local Semitic deities, Mesopotamian and Arab gods.

By the third century AD, Palmyra was a prosperous regional center reaching the apex of its power in the 260s, when Palmyrene King Odaenathus defeated Persian Emperor Shapur I. The king was succeeded by regent Queen Zenobia, who rebelled against Rome and established the Palmyrene Empire. In 273, Roman emperor Aurelian destroyed the city, which was later restored by Diocletian at a reduced size. The Palmyrenes converted to Christianity during the fourth century and to Islam in the centuries following the conquest by the Rashidun Caliphate, after which the Palmyrene and Greek languages were replaced by Arabic.

Before AD 273, Palmyra enjoyed autonomy and was attached to the Roman province of Syria, having its political organization influenced by the Greek city-state model during the first two centuries AD. The city became a Roman colonia during the third century, leading to the incorporation of Roman governing institutions, before becoming a monarchy in 260. Following its destruction in 273, Palmyra became a minor center under the Byzantines and later empires. Its destruction by the Timurids in 1400 reduced it to a small village. Under French Mandatory rule in 1932, the inhabitants were moved into the new village of Tadmur, and the ancient site became available for excavations.

During the Syrian Civil War in 2015, Palmyra came under the control of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), and subsequently changed hands several times between the militant group and the Syrian Army who retook the city on 2 March 2017. ISIL sabotaged many artifacts and destroyed a number of buildings, considerably damaging the ancient site.

Etymology

The name "Tadmor" is known from the early second millennium BC; [2] eighteenth century BC tablets from Mari written in cuneiform record the name as "Ta-ad-mi-ir", while Assyrian inscriptions of the eleventh century BC record it as Ta-ad-mar. [3] Aramaic Palmyrene inscriptions themselves showed two variants of the name; TDMR (i.e. Tadmar) and TDMWR (i.e. Tadmor). [4] [5] The etymology of the name is unclear; the standard interpretation, supported by Albert Schultens, connects it to the Semitic word for " date palm", tamar ( תמר), [note 1] [8] [9] thus referring to the palm trees that surrounded the city. [9]

The Greek name Παλμύρα (Latinized Palmyra) is first recorded by Pliny the Elder in the 1st century AD. [10] It was used throughout the Greco-Roman world. [8] It is generally believed that "Palmyra" derives from "Tadmor" and two possibilities have been presented by linguists; one view holds that Palmyra was an alteration of Tadmor. [8] According to the suggestion by Schultens, "Palmyra" could have arisen as a corruption of "Tadmor", via an unattested form "Talmura", changed to "Palmura" by influence of the Latin word palma (date " palm"), [2] in reference to the city's palm trees, then the name reached its final form "Palmyra". [11] The second view, supported by some philologists, such as Jean Starcky, holds that Palmyra is a translation of "Tadmor" (assuming that it meant palm), which had derived from the Greek word for palm, "Palame". [2] [9]

An alternative suggestion connects the name to the Syriac tedmurtā (ܬܕܡܘܪܬܐ) "miracle", hence tedmurtā "object of wonder", from the root dmr "to wonder"; this possibility was mentioned favourably by Franz Altheim and Ruth Altheim-Stiehl (1973), but rejected by Jean Starcky (1960) and Michael Gawlikowski (1974). [10] Michael Patrick O'Connor (1988) suggested that the names "Palmyra" and "Tadmor" originated in the Hurrian language. [2] As evidence, he cited the inexplicability of alterations to the theorized roots of both names (represented in the addition of -d- to tamar and -ra- to palame). [9] According to this theory, "Tadmor" derives from the Hurrian word tad ("to love") with the addition of the typical Hurrian mid vowel rising (mVr) formant mar. [12] Similarly, according to this theory, "Palmyra" derives from the Hurrian word pal ("to know") using the same mVr formant (mar). [12]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Palmyra
العربية: تدمر
azərbaycanca: Palmira
বাংলা: পালমিরা
Bân-lâm-gú: Palmyra
беларуская: Пальміра
български: Палмира
català: Palmira
Чӑвашла: Пальмира
čeština: Palmýra
Cymraeg: Palmyra
dansk: Palmyra
Deutsch: Palmyra
Ελληνικά: Παλμύρα
español: Palmira
Esperanto: Palmira
euskara: Palmira
فارسی: پالمیرا
français: Palmyre
Gaeilge: Palmyra
galego: Palmira
한국어: 팔미라
Հայերեն: Պալմիրա
हिन्दी: पलमीरा
hrvatski: Palmira
Bahasa Indonesia: Tadmur
íslenska: Palmýra
italiano: Palmira
עברית: תדמור
ქართული: პალმირა
қазақша: Пальмира
Latina: Palmyra
latviešu: Palmīra
Lëtzebuergesch: Palmyra
lietuvių: Palmyra (Sirija)
magyar: Palmüra
მარგალური: პალმირა (სირია)
مازِرونی: پالمیرا
Nederlands: Palmyra (Syrië)
नेपाली: पलमेरा
日本語: パルミラ
нохчийн: Пальмира
norsk: Palmyra
norsk nynorsk: Palmyra
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Palmira
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਪਾਲਮੀਰਾ
پښتو: پالمیرا
português: Palmira
română: Palmira
русский: Пальмира
Scots: Palmira
shqip: Palmira
sicilianu: Palmira
Simple English: Palmyra
slovenčina: Palmýra
slovenščina: Palmira
کوردی: تەدمور
српски / srpski: Палмира
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Palmira
suomi: Palmyra
svenska: Palmyra
தமிழ்: பல்மைரா
татарча/tatarça: Palmira
Türkçe: Palmira
українська: Пальміра
اردو: تدمر
Tiếng Việt: Palmyra
中文: 巴尔米拉