Palestinians

Palestinians
الفلسطينيون al-Filasṭīnīyūn
Flag of Palestine.svg
Total population
c. 13 million[1]
Regions with significant populations
State of Palestine4,750,000[2][3][a 1]
 – West Bank2,930,000 (of whom 809,738 are registered refugees (2017))[4][5][6]
 – Gaza Strip1,880,000 (of whom 1,386,455 are registered refugees (2018))[2][4][5]
Jordan2,175,491 (2017, registered refugees only)[4]–3,240,000 (2009)[7]
Israel1,890,000[8][9] (60% of Israeli Arabs identify as Palestinians (2012))[10]
Syria552,000 (2018, registered refugees only)[4]
Chile500,000[11]
Lebanon174,000 (2017 census)[12]–458,369 (2016 registered refugees)[4]
Saudi Arabia400,000[13]
Qatar295,000[13]
United States255,000[14]
United Arab Emirates91,000[13]
Germany80,000[15]
Kuwait80,000[16]
Egypt70,000[13]
El Salvador70,000[17]
Brazil59,000[18]
Libya59,000[13]
Iraq57,000[19]
Canada50,975[20]
Yemen29,000[13]
Honduras27,000–200,000[13][21]
United Kingdom20,000[15]
Peru15,000[citation needed]
Mexico13,000[13]
Colombia12,000[13]
Netherlands9,000–15,000[22]
Australia7,000 (rough estimate)[23][24]
Sweden7,000[25]
Algeria4,030[26]
Languages
Palestine and Israel:
Palestinian Arabic, Hebrew, English and Greek
Diaspora:
Other varieties of Arabic, the vernacular languages of other countries in the Palestinian diaspora
Religion
Majority: Sunni Islam
Minority: Christianity, Samaritanism,[27][28] Druze, Shia Islam, non-denominational Muslims[29]
Related ethnic groups
Other Levantines, other Semitic-speaking peoples, Jews (Ashkenazim, Mizrahim, Sephardim), Assyrians, Samaritans, other Arabs, and other Mediterranean peoples.[30]

The Palestinian people (Arabic: الشعب الفلسطيني‎, ash-sha‘b al-Filasṭīnī), also referred to as Palestinians (Arabic: الفلسطينيون‎, al-Filasṭīniyyūn, Hebrew: פָלַסְטִינִים) or Palestinian Arabs (Arabic: الفلسطينيين العرب‎, ạl-flsṭynyyn ạl-ʿrb), are an ethnonational group[31][32][33][34][35][36][37] comprising the modern descendants of the peoples who have lived in Palestine continuously over the centuries and who today are largely culturally and linguistically Arab;[38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45] this definition includes those ethnic Jews and Samaritans who fit this definition. Despite various wars and exoduses (such as that in 1948), roughly one half of the world's Palestinian population continues to reside in historic Palestine, the area encompassing the West Bank, the Gaza Strip and Israel.[46] In this combined area, as of 2005, Palestinians constituted 49% of all inhabitants,[47] encompassing the entire population of the Gaza Strip (1.865 million),[48] the majority of the population of the West Bank (approximately 2,785,000 versus about 600,000 Jewish Israeli citizens, which includes about 200,000 in East Jerusalem) and 20.95% of the population of Israel proper as Arab citizens of Israel.[49][50] Many are Palestinian refugees or internally displaced Palestinians, including more than a million in the Gaza Strip,[51] about 750,000 in the West Bank[52] and about 250,000 in Israel proper. Of the Palestinian population who live abroad, known as the Palestinian diaspora, more than half are stateless, lacking citizenship in any country.[53] Between 2.1 and 3.24 million of the diaspora population live in neighboring Jordan,[54][55] over 1 million live between Syria and Lebanon and about 750,000 live in Saudi Arabia, with Chile's half a million representing the largest concentration outside the Middle East.

Palestinian Christians and Muslims constituted 90% of the population of Palestine in 1919, just before the third wave of Jewish immigration under the post-WW1 British Mandatory Authority,[56][57] opposition to which spurred the consolidation of a unified national identity, fragmented as it was by regional, class, religious and family differences.[58][59] The history of a distinct Palestinian national identity is a disputed issue amongst scholars.[60][61] Legal historian Assaf Likhovski states that the prevailing view is that Palestinian identity originated in the early decades of the 20th century,[60] when an embryonic desire among Palestinians for self-government in the face of generalized fears that Zionism would lead to a Jewish state and the dispossession of the Arab majority crystallised among most editors, Christian and Muslim, of local newspapers.[62] "Palestinian" was used to refer to the nationalist concept of a Palestinian people by Palestinian Arabs in a limited way until World War I.[42][43] After the creation of the State of Israel, the exodus of 1948 and more so after the exodus of 1967, the term came to signify not only a place of origin but also the sense of a shared past and future in the form of a Palestinian state.[42] Modern Palestinian identity now encompasses the heritage of all ages from biblical times up to the Ottoman period.[63]

Founded in 1964, the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) is an umbrella organization for groups that represent the Palestinian people before international states.[64] The Palestinian National Authority, officially established in 1994 as a result of the Oslo Accords, is an interim administrative body nominally responsible for governance in Palestinian population centers in the West Bank and Gaza Strip.[65] Since 1978, the United Nations has observed an annual International Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian People. According to Perry Anderson, it is estimated that half of the population in the Palestinian territories are refugees and that they have collectively suffered approximately US$300 billion in property losses due to Israeli confiscations, at 2008–09 prices.[66]

Etymology

A depiction of Syria and Palestine from CE 650 to 1500

The Greek toponym Palaistínē (Παλαιστίνη), with which the Arabic Filastin (فلسطين) is cognate, first occurs in the work of the 5th century BCE Greek historian Herodotus, where it denotes generally[67] the coastal land from Phoenicia down to Egypt.[68][69] Herodotus also employs the term as an ethnonym, as when he speaks of the 'Syrians of Palestine' or 'Palestinian-Syrians',[70] an ethnically amorphous group he distinguishes from the Phoenicians.[71][72] Herodotus makes no distinction between the Jews and other inhabitants of Palestine.[73]

The Greek word reflects an ancient Eastern Mediterranean-Near Eastern word which was used either as a toponym or ethnonym. In Ancient Egyptian Peleset/Purusati[74] has been conjectured to refer to the "Sea Peoples", particularly the Philistines.[75][76] Among Semitic languages, Akkadian Palaštu (variant Pilištu) is used of 7th-century Philistia and its, by then, four city states.[77] Biblical Hebrew's cognate word Plištim, is usually translated Philistines.[78]

Syria Palestina continued to be used by historians and geographers and others to refer to the area between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River, as in the writings of Philo, Josephus and Pliny the Elder. After the Romans adopted the term as the official administrative name for the region in the 2nd century CE, "Palestine" as a stand-alone term came into widespread use, printed on coins, in inscriptions and even in rabbinic texts.[79] The Arabic word Filastin has been used to refer to the region since the time of the earliest medieval Arab geographers. It appears to have been used as an Arabic adjectival noun in the region since as early as the 7th century CE.[80] The Arabic newspaper Falasteen (est. 1911), published in Jaffa by Issa and Yusef al-Issa, addressed its readers as "Palestinians".[81]

During the Mandatory Palestine period, the term "Palestinian" was used to refer to all people residing there, regardless of religion or ethnicity, and those granted citizenship by the British Mandatory authorities were granted "Palestinian citizenship".[82] Other examples include the use of the term Palestine Regiment to refer to the Jewish Infantry Brigade Group of the British Army during World War II, and the term "Palestinian Talmud", which is an alternative name of the Jerusalem Talmud, used mainly in academic sources.

Following the 1948 establishment of Israel, the use and application of the terms "Palestine" and "Palestinian" by and to Palestinian Jews largely dropped from use. For example, the English-language newspaper The Palestine Post, founded by Jews in 1932, changed its name in 1950 to The Jerusalem Post. Jews in Israel and the West Bank today generally identify as Israelis. Arab citizens of Israel identify themselves as Israeli, Palestinian or Arab.[83]

The Palestinian National Charter, as amended by the PLO's Palestinian National Council in July 1968, defined "Palestinians" as "those Arab nationals who, until 1947, normally resided in Palestine regardless of whether they were evicted from it or stayed there. Anyone born, after that date, of a Palestinian father – whether in Palestine or outside it – is also a Palestinian."[84] Note that "Arab nationals" is not religious-specific, and it includes not only the Arabic-speaking Muslims of Palestine, but also the Arabic-speaking Christians of Palestine and other religious communities of Palestine who were at that time Arabic-speakers, such as the Samaritans and Druze. Thus, the Jews of Palestine were/are also included, although limited only to "the [Arabic-speaking] Jews who had normally resided in Palestine until the beginning of the [pre-state] Zionist invasion." The Charter also states that "Palestine with the boundaries it had during the British Mandate, is an indivisible territorial unit."[84][85]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Palestyne
العربية: فلسطينيون
aragonés: Palestins
asturianu: Pueblu palestín
azərbaycanca: Fələstinli
беларуская: Палесцінцы
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Палестынцы
български: Палестинци
čeština: Palestinci
Cymraeg: Palesteiniaid
Ελληνικά: Παλαιστίνιοι
Esperanto: Palestinanoj
euskara: Palestinar
français: Palestiniens
hrvatski: Palestinci
Bahasa Indonesia: Bangsa Palestina
italiano: Palestinesi
עברית: פלסטינים
Latina: Palaestini
latviešu: Palestīnieši
lietuvių: Palestiniečiai
Bahasa Melayu: Orang Palestin
Nederlands: Palestijnen
norsk nynorsk: Palestinarar
português: Palestinos
română: Palestinieni
русский: Палестинцы
Simple English: Palestinian people
slovenščina: Palestinci
српски / srpski: Палестинци
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Palestinci
svenska: Palestinier
Tagalog: Mga Palestino
Türkçe: Filistinliler
українська: Палестинці
ייִדיש: פאלעסטינער